Methodology of Hajj and 'Umrah

The methodology which has been fixed for Hajj and 'Umrah by the Shari'ah is as follows:

'Umrah

First the Ihram should be put on with the intention of doing 'Umrah: Those coming from outside Makkah should put on the Ihram from their respective Miqat; locals whether they are Makkans or are temporarily staying in Makkah should put it on from some nearby place located outside the limits of the Haram. And those who live outside the limits of Haram but are located within the Miqat their Miqat is their place of residence. They can put the Ihram from their homes and begin reciting the Talbiyah.

The recital of the Talbiyah should continue till a pilgrim reaches the Baytullah.

Once he arrives there, he should offer the Tawaf of the Baytullah.

Then the Sa'i should be offered.

If the animals of Hadi accompany a pilgrim, they should then be sacrificed.

After sacrifice, men should shave their heads or have a hair cut and women should cut a small tuft from the end of their hair and then take off their Ihram.

The Ihram is a religious term. It signifies that pilgrims will not indulge in lewd talk; they will not use any adornments and not even use any perfume; they will not cut their nails nor shave or cut any body hair; they will not even remove any dirt or filth from them so much so they will not even kill any lice of their body; they will not hunt preys nor wear stitched cloth; they will expose their heads, faces and the upper part of their feet; they will wear one sheet as loin cloth and enfold another around themselves.

Women, however, can wear stitched clothes and even cover their heads and feet. They are only required to expose their hands and faces.

The Talbiyah implies the constant recital of these words:

لبيك اللهم لبيك؛ لبيك لا شريك لك ' لبيك ؛ان الحمد و النعمة لك ' والملك ؛لا شريك لك

It begins right after putting on the Ihram and continues till a pilgrim reaches the Baytullah. This is the only recital which the Almighty has fixed for Hajj and 'Umrah.

The Tawaf refers to the seven rounds which are made around the Baytullah in a state of cleanliness. Each of these rounds begins with the Hajari Aswad and ends with it and the Istilam of the Hajari Aswad is done at the beginning of each round. It means kissing the Hajari Aswad or touching it with the hands and then kissing the hands. If the place is crowded, a pilgrim can just raise his hands in its direction or even point a stick or something similar towards it.

The Sa'i refers to the Tawaf of the Safa and Marwah. This also consists of seven rounds which begin with Safa. A complete round extends from Safa to Marwah. The last round ends on Marwah.

Like animal sacrifice, the Sa'i between the Safa and Marwah is optional. It is not an essential part of the 'Umrah. The Almighty says:

إِنَّ الصَّفَا وَالْمَرْوَةَ مِن شَعَآئِرِ اللّهِ فَمَنْ حَجَّ الْبَيْتَ أَوِ اعْتَمَرَ فَلاَ جُنَاحَعَلَيْهِ أَن يَطَّوَّفَ بِهِمَا وَمَن تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَإِنَّ اللّهَ شَاكِرٌ عَلِيمٌ(158:2)

TheSafa and Marwa are indeed two of God's symbols. So it shall be no offence for those who come for Hajj or 'Umrah of this Sacred House to walk around them [In fact, this is a virtuous deed] and He that does a virtue of his own will God will accept it and is fully aware of it. (2:158)

The Hadi refers to the animals which have been specifically reserved to be sacrificed in the Haram. In order to make them distinct from other animals their bodies are marked and collars are tied around their necks. For this very reason the Qur'an (5:2 / 5:97) uses the word 'الْقَلَائِد' for them.

Hajj

Like the 'Umrah, the Hajj too begins with the Ihram. Consequently, the first thing that a pilgrim must do is to put on the Ihram with the intention of offering Hajj. Those coming from outside Makkah should put on the Ihram from their respective Miqat; locals whether they are Makkans or are temporarily staying in Makkah or live outside the limits of Haram but are located within the Miqat should put it on at their place of residence. This is their Miqat. They can put the Ihram from their homes and begin reciting the Talbiyah.

Pilgrims should go to Mina on the eighth of Dhu Al-Hajj and reside there.

They should go to 'Arafat on the ninth of Dhu Al-Hajj. At 'Arafat the imam will deliver the sermon before the Zuhr prayer and the prayers of Zuhr and 'Asr shall be offered by combining and shortening them.

After the prayer, pilgrims should celebrate the glory of their Lord and express their gratitude to Him, express His exaltedness and oneness and invoke and beseech Him as much as they can.

They should set off for Muzdalifah after sunset.

After arriving at Muzdalifah, the pilgrims should offer the prayers of Maghrib and 'Isha by combining and shortening them.

The night must be spent at the field of Muzdalifah.

After the Fajr prayer, the pilgrims for some time should celebrate the glory of their Lord and express their gratitude to Him, express His exaltedness and oneness and invoke and beseech Him – just as they did at 'Arafat.

Then they should leave for Mina and once they reach the Jamra' 'Aqabah they should stop reciting the Talbiyah and pelt this Jamrah with seven stones.

If the pilgrims have brought forth the Hadi or if it has become incumbent upon them to sacrifice animals which have been devoted or which are a means of atonement, then these should be sacrificed.

After sacrifice, men should shave their heads or have a hair cut and women should cut a small tuft from the end of their hair and then take off their Ihram.

After that the pilgrims should set off for the Baytullah and offer the Tawaf.

With this, all restrictions which the Ihram entails shall be lifted. After that, if a pilgrim wants, he can offer the Sa'i of the Safa and the Marwah – though this is optional.

Then they should go back to Mina and stay there for two or three days and then everyday pelt first the first Jamrah, then the middle one and then the last one with seven stones each.

Ever since the times of Abraham (sws), these are the rites (Manasik) of Hajj and 'Umrah. The Qur'an has made no change in them; it has only explained certain issues which arose – issues about which there was no clear directive given previously.

These issues are five in number:

The first of them is that showing reverence to whatever has been declared sacred by the Almighty regarding Hajj and 'Umrah is a requirement of faith. This should be expressed and followed at all costs. If some other group violates this sanctity, Muslims too have the right to retaliate on equal footings. The reason is that keeping intact the sanctities ordained by the Almighty is a two way practice. One member of the pact cannot just maintain it on its own. The Almighty says:

الشَّهْرُ الْحَرَامُ بِالشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْحُرُمَاتُ قِصَاصٌ فَمَنْ اعْتَدَى عَلَيْكُمْ فَاعْتَدُوا عَلَيْهِ بِمِثْلِ مَا اعْتَدَى عَلَيْكُمْ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ (2: 194)

A sacred month for a sacred month; [similarly] other sacred things too are subject to retaliation. So if anyone transgresses against you, you should also pay back in equal coins. Have fear of Allah and keep in mind that Allah is with those who remain within the bounds [stipulated by religion]. (2:194)

While explaining this verse, Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi, writes:

This verse implies that fighting in the forbidden months or fighting within the boundaries of the Haram is a big sin. However, if the disbelievers disregard their sanctity, Muslims on account of Qisas also have the right to strip them of the protection that these sacred entities afford them. The life of every person carries great sanctity in the eyes of the Shari'ah. However, when a person violates this sanctity and kills someone, then he himself will be deprived of the right of sanctity of his own life to avenge his own deed. Similarly, the sanctity of the forbidden months and of the Haram itself shall be upheld in all circumstances on the condition that the disbelievers also uphold it and do not oppress and tyrannize people during this time. However, if they unsheathe their swords in the forbidden months and in the sacred land of Makkah, then on account of Qisas they themselves deserve to be divested of the protection these months and this land hold for them. The verse goes on to say that just as the taking of Qisas for the forbidden months is necessary, the Qisas of other sacred entities must also be taken. In other words, if the disbelievers deprive Muslims of the right of protection that certain sacred things hold for them, Muslims too have the right as a result of Qisas to pay them back in equal coins or measure.[1]

Secondly, in spite of the permission for war, Muslims cannot take any initiative in violating the sanctities. These are the sanctities ordained by God and taking the initiative in violating them is a grave sin. In no circumstances should this happen. An attack on the Sacred House is an attack on the House of God; harming the animals which are marked for sacrifice to God and the people who have travelled to seek the bounty and pleasure of their Lord is like going after God. Hence, even animosity towards a nation should not lead Muslims to violate the limits in this regard. It should remain clear to them the Almighty is stern in retribution for those who break promises and covenants – promises which He had made with people as a favour and as a means to grant them dominance:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تُحِلُّواْ شَعَآئِرَ اللّهِ وَلاَ الشَّهْرَ الْحَرَامَ وَلاَ الْهَدْيَ وَلاَ الْقَلآئِدَ وَلا آمِّينَ الْبَيْتَ الْحَرَامَ يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلاً مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ وَرِضْوَانًا …وَلاَ يَجْرِمَنَّكُمْ شَنَآنُ قَوْمٍ أَن صَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ أَن تَعْتَدُواْ وَتَعَاوَنُواْ عَلَى الْبرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى وَلاَ تَعَاوَنُواْ عَلَى الإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ إِنَّ اللّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ (2:5)

Believers, do not violate the symbols of God, or the sacred months, or the animals of Hadi or [specifically those among them] who are marked with collars of devotion or those who have set out for this House to seek God's grace and pleasure … And if some people have stopped you from coming to the Sacred House, your animosity against them should not incite you so much that you cross the limits of the Almighty. [No, you must abide by these limits] and help one another in what is virtuous and pious and not in what is wicked and sinful. Have fear of God because God is stern in retribution. (5:2)

جَعَلَ اللّهُ الْكَعْبَةَ الْبَيْتَ الْحَرَامَ قِيَامًا لِّلنَّاسِ وَالشَّهْرَ الْحَرَامَ وَالْهَدْيَ وَالْقَلاَئِدَ ذَلِكَ لِتَعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الأَرْضِ وَأَنَّ اللّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ اعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ وَأَنَّ اللّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ (5:97-98)

God has made the Ka'bah, the Sacred House, a centre for the people and the sacred months, and the sacrificial animals and [especially those among] the animals which [as symbols] are adorned with collars devoted [to Allah]. This is because you may know God has knowledge of all that the heavens and the earth. Beware that God is stern in retribution, and that God is Forgiving and Merciful. (5:97-98)

The third issue is that the prohibition of hunting while a pilgrim is wearing the Ihram is only for animals of the land. Hunting sea animals or eating sea animal which have been hunted by others is allowed. This lenience is because if provisions become scarce in land travel they can be obtained by one way or another but in sea travel there is no option but to hunt animals. However, this permission does not mean that people wrongfully benefit from it. The prey hunted on land is prohibited in all circumstances. So if a person deliberately commits such a sin then he must atone for it.

There are three ways for this atonement:

A similar household quadruped animal to that which has been hunted should be sent to the Baytullah for sacrifice.

If this is not possible then the price of such an animal should be calculated and the amount spent to feed the poor.

If even this is not possible then a person should fast; the number of these fasts should be equivalent to the number of poor a person has become liable to feed.

As far as the decision is concerned regarding the type of animal to be sacrificed in return, or if this is not possible then the determination of the price of such an animal or the number of poor which should be fed or the number of fasts which should be kept, it shall be made by two trustworthy Muslims so that no chance remains for the sinner to succumb to a wrong judgement:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لَيَبْلُوَنَّكُمُ اللّهُ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنَ الصَّيْدِ تَنَالُهُ أَيْدِيكُمْ وَرِمَاحُكُمْ لِيَعْلَمَ اللّهُ مَن يَخَافُهُ بِالْغَيْبِ فَمَنِ اعْتَدَى بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فَلَهُ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَقْتُلُواْ الصَّيْدَ وَأَنتُمْ حُرُمٌ وَمَن قَتَلَهُ مِنكُم مُّتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَاء مِّثْلُ مَا قَتَلَ مِنَ النَّعَمِ يَحْكُمُ بِهِ ذَوَا عَدْلٍ مِّنكُمْ هَدْيًا بَالِغَ الْكَعْبَةِ أَوْ كَفَّارَةٌ طَعَامُ مَسَاكِينَ أَو عَدْلُ ذَلِكَ صِيَامًا لِّيَذُوقَ وَبَالَ أَمْرِهِ عَفَا اللّهُ عَمَّا سَلَف وَمَنْ عَادَ فَيَنتَقِمُ اللّهُ مِنْهُ وَاللّهُ عَزِيزٌ ذُو انْتِقَامٍ أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ صَيْدُ الْبَحْرِ وَطَعَامُهُ مَتَاعًا لَّكُمْ وَلِلسَّيَّارَةِ وَحُرِّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ صَيْدُ الْبَرِّ مَا دُمْتُمْ حُرُمًا وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ الَّذِيَ إِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ (5:94-96)

Believers, God will definitely try you through the prey which you can catch with your hands or with your spears in order to see who fear Him without observing Him. Then he who transgresses even after this warning shall be sternly punished. Believers! do not hunt while wearing the Ihram and anyone of you who deliberately does so, then he should sacrifice a similar animal in return to the one he had killed. This decision shall be made by two just men among you and this offering shall be sent to the Baytullah or he shall, in expiation, either feed the poor or fast a similar number so that he may taste the evil consequences of his deed. God has forgiven what has been done in the past but if anyone relapses into wrongdoing God will avenge Himself on him. [This is the decision of God] and God is Mighty and Capable of revenge. Lawful for you is the prey you catch from the sea and the sustenance it provides; a wholesome food, for you and for the seafarer. But you are forbidden the prey hunted on land as long as you are wearing the Ihram. Have fear of God, before whom you shall all be assembled. (5:94-96)

The fourth issue is that if the pilgrims are not able to reach the Sacred House and are stranded somewhere they can sacrifice a camel, cow or a goat and after shaving their heads they can take off their Ihram. This will complete their Hajj and 'Umrah. On the occasion of the truce of Hudaybiyyah, this is precisely what the Prophet (sws) did.[2]However, this much should remain clear that whether the sacrifice is offered on such compelling occasions or in Makkah or Mina, shaving the head is not permissible before it. The only exception to this is if a person is sick or he has some ailment in his head and he is forced to shave his head before animal sacrifice. The Qur'an has allowed the pilgrims to do so in such circumstances but they should atone for this in the form of keeping fasts, or spending in the way of God or sacrificing an animal(s). The amounts of these acts of atonement are left to their own discretion. It is narrated that when the Prophet (sws) was asked about these amounts, he replied: 'it would suffice if either a person fasts for three days, or feeds six poor people or sacrifices a goat'.[3]

وَأَتِمُّواْ الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلّهِ فَإِنْ أُحْصِرْتُمْ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ وَلاَ تَحْلِقُواْ رُؤُوسَكُمْ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ الْهَدْيُ مَحِلَّهُ فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضاً أَوْ بِهِ أَذًى مِّن رَّأْسِهِ فَفِدْيَةٌ مِّن صِيَامٍ أَوْ صَدَقَةٍ أَوْ نُسُكٍ (196:2)

‏And [if the way to] Hajj and 'Umrah [is opened to you, offer them with all their rites] for God only. But if you are stranded on the way sacrifice whatever offering is available to you and do not shave your heads until the offerings have reached their destination. But if any of you is ill or suffers from an ailment of the head, he must atone for this either by fasting or by spending in the way of God or by offering a sacrifice. (2:196)

The fifth issue is that if those who have come from outside want to combine the Hajj with the 'Umrah in one journey, they can do so. The way to do this is that they should first take off the Ihram after offering the 'Umrah. Then they should again put it on the eighth of Dhu Al-Hajj and then offer Hajj. This is a mere lenience which the Almighty has provided the pilgrims to save themselves of the bother of two journeys. Thus they will atone for benefiting from this lenience. There are two ways for this:

They should offer the sacrifice of whatever animal is available to them from a camel, cow or goat.

If this is not possible, then they should fast for ten days: three during their Hajj stay and seven when they return.

It is evident from the above explanation that what is pleasing in the sight of God is that one should make separate journeys for Hajj and 'Umrah. Thus the Qur'an has clarified that this lenience is not for those whose houses are near the Sacred Mosque:

فَإِذَا أَمِنتُمْ فَمَن تَمَتَّعَ بِالْعُمْرَةِ إِلَى الْحَجِّ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فِي الْحَجِّ وَسَبْعَةٍ إِذَا رَجَعْتُمْ تِلْكَ عَشَرَةٌ كَامِلَةٌ ذَلِكَ لِمَن لَّمْ يَكُنْ أَهْلُهُ حَاضِرِي الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ(196:2)

Then in peacetime anyone among you who benefits from the 'Umrah till the time of Hajj arrives, he should sacrifice any animal that is available; and if it is not available, he should fast for three days during the Hajj and seven when he has returned. These are ten days in all. This [lenience of combining Hajj with 'Umrah in a single journey] is only for those whose houses are not located near the Sacred Mosque. [Follow this directive] and have fear of God and know well that God is stern in retribution. (2:196)

It should remain clear that those who want to avail this rebate, they are not required to bring the Hadi animals along with them; they can buy them from there on the day of sacrifice. The reason for this is that these animals shall be sacrificed on the 10th of Dhu Al-Hajj and as is evident from the above discussion they cannot shave their heads unless this sacrifice takes place; as a natural consequence of this they would not be able to take off their Ihram. At the occasion of the last Hajj, the Prophet (sws) faced this very situation. Consequently, he is reported to have said:

ولو أني استقبلت من أمري ما استدبرت ما أهديت ولولا أن معي الهدي لأحللت

Had what has now become evident to me become evident earlier, I would not have brought the Hadi animals along and if I had not brought them, I would have been able to take off my Ihram. (Bukhari, No: 2505)

Guidance provided by the Prophet (sws)

The previous discussion covers the directives of Hajjand 'Umrah. However, the guidance we receive from the practices of the Prophet (sws) in this regard is as follows:

Ihram

When putting on the Ihram, the Prophet (sws) would sprinkle some perfume on himself. A%'ishah(rta) narrates that she sprinkled the perfume of musk on him before he put on the Ihram and also on the 10th of Dhu Al-Hajj after he took off the Ihram when he departed to Makkah to offer the Tawaf. She is reported to have said: 'Even today, I see the glow [of the powder] of the fragrance where his hair parts'.[4]

While wearing the Ihram, the Prophet (sws) had scarification done, had his hair set and also washed his head.[5]He also allowed people to tear their socks from below and use them as shoes in case they did not have shoes to wear and also allowed them to wear shalwar or pajamah in case they did not have unstitched cloth.[6]

He did not approve of a person getting married or a person having someone get married or finalizing a marriage while wearing the Ihram.[7]

If a person dies in the state of Ihram, the Prophet (sws) has directed people to bury him in this state and has stopped people from sprinkling perfume on him or covering his head or face while burying him. He informed us that Allah will raise such a person on the Day of Judgement while that person is reciting the Talbiyah.[8]

He similarly explained that no doubt hunting animals is forbidden in the state of Ihram; however, such a person can eat the animal which has been killed by someone who is not wearing the Ihram on the condition that he did not suggest or indicate to him to hunt down the prey.[9]He also explained that this prohibition of hunting animals does not relate to harmful and dangerous animals. Such animals can be killed in the state of Ihram without any hesitation.[10]

Talbiyah

Regarding the Talbiyah, the Prophet (sws) is reported to have said: 'This is a symbol (shi'ar) of Hajj'[11]and when a Muslim utters the words: 'لَبَّيْك لَبَّيْك', then the trees and stones to the right and left of him till the end of the earth also say these words'.[12]Consequently, he is reported to have said: 'Gabriel the trustworthy has directed me that these words should be said loudly'.[13]

It is evident from certain narratives that he would add words of similar meanings to the Talbiyah. Ibn 'Umar (rta) reports that when the Prophet (sws) would go out for Hajj and 'Umrah he would pray two Rak'ats at Dhu Al-Hulayfah, then would get on a camel near the mosque; when the camel would stop, he would begin the Talbiyah with the following prayer[14]:

لَبَّيْكاَللّهُمَّ لَبَّيْك , لَبَّيْك وَ سَعْدَيْك , وَ الْخَيْر فِي يَدَيْكَ وَ الرَّغْبَاءُ إلَيْكَ وَ العَمَلُ

I am present; O lord I am present; I am present and receive good fortune from this very presence; the good is only in Your hand; I am present and inclination is towards You alone and deeds are for You only.

Likewise, on a similar occasion, the words which have been reported are: 'لَبَّيْكَاِلَهَ الْحَقَّلَبَّيْكَ'.[15]

Tawaf

There is only one Tawaf of Hajj which is called the Tawafi Ifadah; however, the Prophet (sws) has directed the pilgrims to offer another Tawaf after offering Hajj and 'Umrah before they return to their homes. Ibn 'Abbas narrates that the Prophet (sws) is reported to have said that before departing the last thing everyone of you should do is this.[16]Women, however, who are passing through their menstrual cycles have been exempted by him from this and have been permitted to depart from Makkah without offering it.[17]

Before beginning the Tawaf, the Prophet (sws) did Wudu[18]and said that the Tawaf is like the prayer but if any one wants to say something during it he can; however, he should say what is good.[19]

A%'ishah(rta) narrates the she was having her menstrual cycle and the Prophet said: 'In this state you can offer all the rites of Hajj except the Tawaf.[20]

Umm Salamah (rta) says: 'I was ill; when the Prophet (sws) was told of this, he asked me to offer Tawaf on a conveyance.[21]

Jabir Ibn 'Abdullah(rta) says that when the Prophet offered the first Tawaf after reaching Makkah, he ran in the first three rounds while shaking his shoulders and the four remaining rounds he walked the way he used to walk.[22]Then he advanced towards the Maqami Ibrahim and offered two Rak'ats while standing behind it; he then came back towards the Hajari Aswad and did the Istilam and went off towards Safa from the door.[23]

Ibn 'Abbas(rta) narrates that during this Tawaf, his right shoulder was uncovered and he had covered his left shoulder after inserting the [Ihram] cloth through his right armpit.[24]

Some narratives also mention that he did the Istilam of the Rukn Yamani during the Tawaf.[25]

Similarly, among the blessings of the Tawaf as recorded in certain narratives is that he who did Tawaf and then also offered two Rak'ats, it was as if he emancipated a slave in the way of God.[26]

Sa'i

The manner in which the Prophet (sws) offered the Sa'i was that once he was through with the Tawaf, he went off towards Safaand climbed right to its top; then he faced the Qiblah and declared the oneness and sovereignty of Allah and declared:

لا اله الا الله وحده , لا شريك له , له الملك و له الحمد , و هو على كل شى قدير , لا اله الا الله وحده , أنجز وعده , نصر عبده , و هزم الاحزاب وحده

There is no God but Allah; He is alone; no one is His partner; sovereignty is His and all praise and gratitude also is His and He has power on everything. There is no God but Allah; He is alone; He has fulfilled His promise and has helped His servant and alone has defeated all groups who have rejected [the truth].[27]

He repeated these words three times and in between, he also invoked the Almighty each time. Then he set off for Marwah and when his feet touched the slope, he started to run and as soon as he reached the incline, he reverted to his own gait. At Marwah, he repeated what he did at Safa and in this manner completed seven rounds.[28]

Waquf at'Arafat

The Prophet (sws) set off for 'Arafat from Mina after sunrise on the 9th of Dhu Al-Hajj. There a camp had been erected for him in the valley of Namrah. He resided in this camp till the sun started to decline (Zuhr time). Then he came to the lower part of the valley and delivered a sermon to the people. Following this, he offered the Zuhr and the 'Asr prayers with one Adhan and two Takbirs. He did not offer the optional prayer either before or after them. Then near the Jabli Rahmat he stood while facing the Qiblah invoking and beseeching the Almighty till sunset.[29]Anas (rta) reports that on that day people kept reciting the Talbiyah and also the Takbirs but no objection was raised against these practices.[30]

A'ishah(rta) narrates from the Prophet (sws): 'On the day of 'Arafah, the Almighty is near His people; He expresses His pride about them and does not liberate His servants from Fire anymore than this day'.[31]

Stay at Muzdalifah

At Muzdalifah also, the Prophet (sww) offered the Maghrib and 'Isha prayers with one Adhan and two Takbirs, the way he had offered the Zuhr and the 'Asr prayers at 'Arafat. Then he rested till dawn and did not offer any optional prayers. However, he offered the Fajr prayer a little early. He then stood by the Mash'ar al-Haramkept invoking and beseeching the Almighty till the day fully dawned. Just before sunrise, he set off from there and reached Mina while briskly crossing the valley of Muhassar.[32]

Rami

The Prophet (sws) did Rami at mid morning on the day of sacrifice and on the other days when the sun started to decline.[33]For this he faced the Jamrah with the Sacred Mosque on His left and Mina on his right. Then he hurled seven pebbles and recited the Takbir each time he threw a pebble. He also did Wuquf (the ceremonial stand) near the first two Jamrahs and after Rami expressing his gratitude to Him, declaring His exaltedness and oneness and invoking and beseeching Him for long. However, he did not stand near the last Jamrah.[34]

At this occasion and on the eighth of Dhu Al-Hajj also when he came to Makkah from Mina, he shortened all his prayers as long as he stayed here.[35]

When certain shepherds of the area asked permission to spend the night with their herds instead of spending it at Mina, the Prophet (sws) allowed them to do so and said: 'After hurling pebbles on the day of sacrifice, you can hurl the pebbles of the two days on one day'.[36]

Animal Sacrifice

He offered animal sacrifice in the usual way. However, a question arose that if the animals of Hadi came near death during the way, then what should be done? It is narrated by Ibn 'Abbas (rta) that when a person who had sent sacrificial camels inquired from the Prophet (sws), he answered: 'Slaughter them and dip their hooves in blood and place them near the humps[37]and then neither you nor your associates should eat their meat'.[38]

Halq

On the occasion of the final Hajj, the Prophet himself had his head shaved (Halq) and some of the Companions (rta) also preferred it.[39]Ibn 'Umar (rta) narrates that the Prophet (sws) prayed three times for those who had shaved their heads and once for those who had hair cuts.[40]

This practice of the Prophet (sws) is an indication that the reward of shaving the head is more than just having a hair cut.

There are certain other things that have been reported in certain narratives:

1. A lady raised her child towards the Prophet (sws) and said: 'Can he also offer the Hajj?' The Prophet (sws) replied: 'Yes, but the reward of this Hajj shall go to you'.[41]

2. A lady from the tribe of Kath'am asked: 'O Messenger of God! The Hajj is obligatory upon my father but he is so old that he cannot even sit on an animal of conveyance; can I offer the Hajj for him'. The Prophet (sws) replied: 'Yes'.[42]

3. A lady from the tribe of Juhaynah inquired from the Prophet (sws): 'My mother had vowed to offer the Hajj; now she has died; can I offer it for her'. He replied: 'You should certainly offer it; would you not have paid back a loan she had borrowed? This is a loan taken from God; so pay it back and the obligation to pay back the loan to God is more [than any other]'.[43]

4. Once a person uttered these words before the Prophet (sws): 'لَبَّيْك عَنْ شًُبْرُمَه'. The Prophet (sws) inquired: 'Who is this Shubrumah'. He said: 'He is my brother'. The Prophet (sws) asked: 'Have you offered your own Hajj'. He said: 'No'. The Prophet (sws) then remarked: 'First do your own Hajj and then do it on behalf of Shubrumah'.[44]

5. On the occasion of the final Hajj while the Prophet (sws) was at Mina, he stood to answer questions raised by the people, someone asked: 'I did not know [the right sequence] so I have shaved my head before offering the sacrifice?' The Prophet (sws) replied: 'Not to worry; offer the sacrifice now'. Another person asked: 'I did not know [the right sequence] and I have offered the sacrifice before doing the Rami. The Prophet (sws) remarked: 'Do the Rami now; not to worry'. In generalوwhenever he was asked about what should be done if a rite had been offered before or after its appointed time, he said these same words: 'Not to worry; do it now'.[45]

6. The Prophet (sws) always warned people about the sanctity of Madinah that just as Abraham (sws) had classified Makkah as sacred, he had also classified Madinah. Therefore, no one should shed blood of any person within the two limits of the city nor should he hunt animals nor pick up weapons for war nor shake off the leaves of a tree except if the intention is to feed animals.[46]

The Prophet (sws) is similarly reported to have said: 'Any person who was guilty of any religious innovation in the city of Madinah or offered residence to those who are guilty of this, then the curse of God, his angels and all mankind be on him'.[47]

7. The Prophet (sws) said that praying in his mosque at Madinah earns more reward than a thousand prayers offered in other mosques except the Sacred Mosque at Makkah.[48]Regarding the space between his house and the sermon pulpit he said that this is an orchard from among the orchards of Paradise and also said: 'My pulpit is right at the place where the fountain will be on the Day of Judgement'.[49]

(Translated by Shehzad Saleem from Ghamidi's 'Qanun i 'Ibadat')