Qur'anic Exegesis

Introduction

These surahs form a pair with regard to their subject matter. In both of them, besides the real theme, the Prophet (sws) is assured that he has no responsibility beyond reminding and cautioning the disbelievers. It is up to them to take heed, and it is then up to Allah to seize them for their arrogance if He so intends. The Prophet (sws) should not fret on this.

The surahs address the Prophet (sws) as well as the leadership of the Quraysh, and it is evident from their contents that like the previous surahs they were revealed in Makkah in the phase of Indhar-i-`am of the Prophet's mission.

In these surahs, though the assurance given to the Prophet (sws) and an expression of sorrow and regret on the attitude of his addressees are very distinct, yet a little deliberation shows that their central theme, like the previous surahs, is basically to warn the Quraysh of the Day of Judgement.

Surah A`la

بِسْمِ اللہِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِیْمِِ

سَبِّحِ اسْمَ رَبِّکَ الْأَعْلَی (1) الَّذِیْ خَلَقَ فَسَوَّی (2) وَالَّذِیْ قَدَّرَ فَہَدٰی (3) وَالَّذِیْ اَخْرَجَ الْمَرْعَی (4) فَجَعَلَہُ غُثَاء أَحْوَی (5) سَنُقْرِؤُکَ فَلَا تَنسَی (6) إِلَّا مَا شَاء اللَّہُ إِنَّہُ یَعْلَمُ الْجَہْرَ وَمَا یَخْفَی (7) وَنُیَسِّرُکَ لِلْیُسْرَی (8) فَذَکِّرْ إِن نَّفَعَتِ الذِّکْرٰی (9) سَیَذَّکَّرُ مَن یَخْشَی (10) وَیَتَجَنَّبُہَا الْأَشْقَی (11) الَّذِیْ یَصْلَی النَّارَ الْکُبْرَی (12) ثُمَّ لَا یَمُوتُ فِیْہَا وَلَا یَحْیَی (13) قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن تَزَکَّی (14) وَذَکَرَ اسْمَ رَبِّہِ فَصَلَّی (15) بَلْ تُؤْثِرُونَ الْحَیَاۃَ الدُّنْیَا (16) وَالْآخِرَۃُ خَیْْرٌ وَأَبْقَی (17) إِنَّ ہَذَا لَفِیْ الصُّحُفِ الْأُولَی (18) صُحُفِ إِبْرَاہِیْمَ وَمُوسَی (19)

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Ever Merciful.

Glorify1 the name of your Lord, most high [O Prophet], Who2 created [all things], then perfected [them]3, and Who set their destinies4 [for them], then [accordingly] showed them the way [to follow], and Who brought forth vegetation, then made it lush green5 . (1-5)

[In a similar manner, this divine revelation will also gradually reach its end, then] soon We shall [finally] recite it to you, then you will not forget it except what Allah pleases6. Indeed, He knows what is manifest7 [before you] at this time and also what is hidden [from you]8. And [in a similar way],9 We shall lead you [from these difficulties] towards ease. (6-8)

So, remind them, if reminding be profitable10. It will not be longbeforethose who fear [Allah] take heed, and these wretched [people],11 they will evade it12. They who will enter the Great Fire13. Then they will neither die nor live in it14. (9-13)

[At that time], however, successful shall be he who purified [himself, and for this]15 he remembered his Lord's name, then prayed16. (14-15)

[No, you do not have any argument against it O People!] but give preference to this worldly life 17 in spite of the fact that the life to come is better and more lasting, [and then this is not something new]: It is written in the earlier scriptures as well – the scriptures of Abraham and Moses18. (16-19)

Surah Ghashiyah

بِسْمِ اللہِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِیْمِِ

ہَلْ أَتَاکَ حَدِیْثُ الْغَاشِیَۃِ (1) وُجُوہٌ یَوْمَءِذٍ خَاشِعَۃٌ (2) عَامِلَۃٌ نَّاصِبَۃٌ (3) تَصْلَی نَاراً حَامِیَۃً (4) تُسْقَی مِنْ عَیْْنٍ آنِیَۃٍ (5) لَّیْْسَ لَہُمْ طَعَامٌ إِلَّا مِن ضَرِیْعٍ (6) لَا یُسْمِنُ وَلَا یُغْنِیْ مِن جُوعٍ (7) وُجُوہٌ یَوْمَءِذٍ نَّاعِمَۃٌ (8) لِسَعْیِہَا رَاضِیَۃٌ (9) فِیْ جَنَّۃٍ عَالِیَۃٍ (10) لَّا تَسْمَعُ فِیْہَا لَاغِیَۃً (11) فِیْہَا عَیْْنٌ جَارِیَۃٌ (12) فِیْہَا سُرُرٌ مَّرْفُوعَۃٌ (13) وَأَکْوَابٌ مَّوْضُوعَۃٌ (14) وَنَمَارِقُ مَصْفُوفَۃٌ (15) وَزَرَابِیُّ مَبْثُوثَۃٌ (16) أَفَلَا یَنظُرُونَ إِلَی الْإِبِلِ کَیْْفَ خُلِقَتْ (17) وَإِلَی السَّمَاء کَیْْفَ رُفِعَتْ (18) وَإِلَی الْجِبَالِ کَیْْفَ نُصِبَتْ (19) وَإِلَی الْأَرْضِ کَیْْفَ سُطِحَتْ (20) فَذَکِّرْ إِنَّمَا أَنتَ مُذَکِّرٌ (21) لَّسْتَ عَلَیْْہِم بِمُصَیْْطِرٍ (22) إِلَّا مَن تَوَلَّی وَکَفَرَ (23) فَیُعَذِّبُہُ اللَّہُ الْعَذَابَ الْأَکْبَرَ (24) إِنَّ إِلَیْْنَا إِیَابَہُمْ (25) ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَیْْنَا حِسَابَہُمْ (26)

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Ever Merciful.

Has the news of the great calamity reached you [O Prophet!]19 which will over spread [the whole world]?20 Many a face21 on that day will be downcast, worn out, exhausted. They will enter the blazing fire.22 They will be given to drink from a seething spring. Their only food will be thorny dry grass23 , which will neither nourish them nor satisfy their hunger24. (1-7)

[On the other hand], many a face on that day will be radiant, pleased with their endeavours25 in a lofty garden26. They will hear no absurd talk there. In it will be a running spring. In it there will be high thrones, and goblets set forth, and carpets arranged, and cushions spread all over.27 (8-16)

[If they do not believe]28 , then do they not see the camels, How they have been made?29 And do they not behold the sky, How it has been raised high? And do they not look at the mountains, How they have been set firm?30 And do they not see the earth,31 How it has been spread out.32 (17-20)

[If they do not believe in spite of this], then just go on reminding them [O Prophet!]. Your duty is only to remind them; you are not to force them. [Those who take heed will definitely believe in it]33. As for those who turn away and reject [it], Allah will inflict on them that great punishment [the punishment of Hell]. Indeed, then to Us will they return. Then it is upon Us to call them to account. (21-26)