Qur'anic Exegesis

وَ لِلّٰہِ غَیۡبُ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ وَ مَاۤ اَمۡرُ السَّاعَۃِ اِلَّا کَلَمۡحِ الۡبَصَرِ اَوۡ ہُوَ اَقۡرَبُ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ قَدِیۡرٌ ﴿۷۷﴾

[They insist that if the Day of Judgement is to come, then its time of arrival should be disclosed to them. In reality,] all the unseen of the heavens and the earth is in God's control and the matter of the Day of Judgement is but like the blinking of the eye or even earlier than that. [This is not at all difficult for Him] because God has power over all things. (77)

وَ اللّٰہُ اَخۡرَجَکُمۡ مِّنۡۢ بُطُوۡنِ اُمَّہٰتِکُمۡ لَا تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ شَیۡئًا ۙ وَّ جَعَلَ لَکُمُ السَّمۡعَ وَ الۡاَبۡصَارَ وَ الۡاَفۡـِٕدَۃَ ۙ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تَشۡکُرُوۡنَ ﴿۷۸﴾

And [observe that] it is the Almighty who took you out from the wombs of your mothers. At that time, you knew nothing. He gave you ears, eyes and hearts [that ponder] so that you are grateful.[50] (78)

اَلَمۡ یَرَوۡا اِلَی الطَّیۡرِ مُسَخَّرٰتٍ فِیۡ جَوِّ السَّمَآءِ ؕ مَا یُمۡسِکُہُنَّ اِلَّا اللّٰہُ ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیٰتٍ لِّقَوۡمٍ یُّؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۷۹﴾ وَ اللّٰہُ جَعَلَ لَکُمۡ مِّنۡۢ بُیُوۡتِکُمۡ سَکَنًا وَّ جَعَلَ لَکُمۡ مِّنۡ جُلُوۡدِ الۡاَنۡعَامِ بُیُوۡتًا تَسۡتَخِفُّوۡنَہَا یَوۡمَ ظَعۡنِکُمۡ وَ یَوۡمَ اِقَامَتِکُمۡ ۙ وَ مِنۡ اَصۡوَافِہَا وَ اَوۡبَارِہَا وَ اَشۡعَارِہَاۤ اَثَاثًا وَّ مَتَاعًا اِلٰی حِیۡنٍ ﴿۸۰﴾

Have they not seen the birds which are subjected to a decree in the sky.[51] Only God is holding them. Surely, there are many signs in this for those who want to accept faith.[52] [Like these birds soaring in the sky,] the peace and comfort of your houses is also created for you by God. It is He Who has made houses for you from the hides of the cattle[53] which you find very light at the time of your departure and stay.[54] And from their wool, fur and hair, He has made household items [for you] and many things of use from which you benefit till an appointed time. (79-80)

وَ اللّٰہُ جَعَلَ لَکُمۡ مِّمَّا خَلَقَ ظِلٰلًا وَّ جَعَلَ لَکُمۡ مِّنَ الۡجِبَالِ اَکۡنَانًا وَّ جَعَلَ لَکُمۡ سَرَابِیۡلَ تَقِیۡکُمُ الۡحَرَّ وَ سَرَابِیۡلَ تَقِیۡکُمۡ بَاۡسَکُمۡ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ یُتِمُّ نِعۡمَتَہٗ عَلَیۡکُمۡ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تُسۡلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۸۱﴾

And it is God Who has made for you the shadows of the things that He has created and places of refuge for you in the mountains[55] and made such garments for you which safeguard you from the heat [of your country] and also made such apparels for you that protect you in your mutual wars. In this way does God complete His favours on you so that you remain obedient to Him.[56] (81)

فَاِنۡ تَوَلَّوۡا فَاِنَّمَا عَلَیۡکَ الۡبَلٰغُ الۡمُبِیۡنُ ﴿۸۲﴾ یَعۡرِفُوۡنَ نِعۡمَتَ اللّٰہِ ثُمَّ یُنۡکِرُوۡنَہَا وَ اَکۡثَرُہُمُ الۡکٰفِرُوۡنَ ﴿ ۸۳﴾

In spite of this, if these people turn away, then [O Prophet!] your only responsibility is to clearly communicate. [They will bear its consequence themselves because] they [are the people] who recognize the favours of God; then become oblivious to them. In reality, most of them are ungrateful. (82-83)

وَ یَوۡمَ نَبۡعَثُ مِنۡ کُلِّ اُمَّۃٍ شَہِیۡدًا ثُمَّ لَا یُؤۡذَنُ لِلَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا وَ لَا ہُمۡ یُسۡتَعۡتَبُوۡنَ ﴿۸۴﴾ وَ اِذَا رَاَ الَّذِیۡنَ ظَلَمُوا الۡعَذَابَ فَلَا یُخَفَّفُ عَنۡہُمۡ وَ لَا ہُمۡ یُنۡظَرُوۡنَ ﴿۸۵﴾ وَ اِذَا رَاَ الَّذِیۡنَ اَشۡرَکُوۡا شُرَکَآءَہُمۡ قَالُوۡا رَبَّنَا ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ شُرَکَآؤُنَا الَّذِیۡنَ کُنَّا نَدۡعُوۡا مِنۡ دُوۡنِکَ ۚ فَاَلۡقَوۡا اِلَیۡہِمُ الۡقَوۡلَ اِنَّکُمۡ لَکٰذِبُوۡنَ ﴿ۚ۸۶﴾ وَ اَلۡقَوۡا اِلَی اللّٰہِ یَوۡمَئِذِۣ السَّلَمَوَ ضَلَّ عَنۡہُمۡ مَّا کَانُوۡا یَفۡتَرُوۡنَ ﴿۸۷﴾ اَلَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا وَ صَدُّوۡا عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ زِدۡنٰہُمۡ عَذَابًا فَوۡقَ الۡعَذَابِ بِمَا کَانُوۡا یُفۡسِدُوۡنَ ﴿۸۸﴾

They should remember the day when We will raise forth a witness from each nation.[57] Then those who would have denied[58] will neither be given a chance to present an excuse[59] nor would they be requested to try to please God.[60] And when those who are guilty of this oppression, see the torment [once], it will not be eased from them nor will they be granted reprieve. And when [on that Day] those guilty of polytheism will see the partners they had associated with God, then [while blaming them for their wrongdoing] will say: "Our Lord! Are these our associates whom we called upon leaving You aside?"[61] At this, their deities will throw back their statement on them: "You are absolute liars." On that day, they will concede defeat before God and the falsehood they were fabricating,[62] all of it will be exposed. [Then not only this] those who [themselves] denied and stopped [others too] from the path of God, We will increase torment after torment for them because of this disorder they had been working.[63] (84-88)

وَ یَوۡمَ نَبۡعَثُ فِیۡ کُلِّ اُمَّۃٍ شَہِیۡدًا عَلَیۡہِمۡ مِّنۡ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ وَ جِئۡنَا بِکَ شَہِیۡدًا عَلٰی ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ ؕ وَ نَزَّلۡنَا عَلَیۡکَ الۡکِتٰبَ تِبۡیَانًا لِّکُلِّ شَیۡءٍ وَّ ہُدًی وَّ رَحۡمَۃً وَّ بُشۡرٰی لِلۡمُسۡلِمِیۡنَ ﴿ ۸۹﴾ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یَاۡمُرُ بِالۡعَدۡلِ وَالۡاِحۡسَانِ وَ اِیۡتَآیِٔ ذِی الۡقُرۡبٰی وَیَنۡہٰی عَنِ الۡفَحۡشَآءِ وَالۡمُنۡکَرِ وَ الۡبَغۡیِ ۚ یَعِظُکُمۡ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تَذَکَّرُوۡنَ ﴿۹۰﴾

They should remember the day when We will raise a witness from within each ummah against them and you [O Prophet!] We will raise as a witness against these people [of your own nation. Before this,] We revealed this Book to fully explain everything to you as a guide and mercy[64] and as glad tidings for the obedient. In reality, God directs you [in it] to justice, virtue and to give to the kin and stops you from lewdness, evil and rebelliousness. He advises you so that you receive a reminder.[65] (89-90)

وَ اَوۡفُوۡا بِعَہۡدِ اللّٰہِ اِذَا عٰہَدۡتُّمۡ وَلَا تَنۡقُضُوا الۡاَیۡمَانَ بَعۡدَ تَوۡکِیۡدِہَا وَ قَدۡ جَعَلۡتُمُ اللّٰہَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ کَفِیۡلًا ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یَعۡلَمُ مَا تَفۡعَلُوۡنَ ﴿۹۱﴾ وَلَا تَکُوۡنُوۡا کَالَّتِیۡ نَقَضَتۡ غَزۡلَہَا مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ قُوَّۃٍ اَنۡکَاثًا ؕ تَتَّخِذُوۡنَ اَیۡمَانَکُمۡ دَخَلًۢا بَیۡنَکُمۡ اَنۡ تَکُوۡنَ اُمَّۃٌ ہِیَ اَرۡبٰی مِنۡ اُمَّۃٍ ؕ اِنَّمَا یَبۡلُوۡکُمُ اللّٰہُ بِہٖ ؕ وَلَیُبَیِّنَنَّ لَکُمۡ یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ مَا کُنۡتُمۡ فِیۡہِ تَخۡتَلِفُوۡنَ ﴿۹۲﴾

You[66] too [O People of the Book!] Fulfill [your] promise with God[67] when you have solemnized it and do not break your oaths after strongly swearing them when you have made God their witness. Indeed, God knows what you do.[68] Do not be like that woman who strongly spun her thread and then tore it up herself into shreds.[69] You make your oaths a means of deception for fear that one nation may move ahead from another.[70] God through this [decision of His] is testing you. On the Day of Judgement, He will definitely make evident to you what you are differing in. (91-92)

وَلَوۡ شَآءَ اللّٰہُ لَجَعَلَکُمۡ اُمَّۃً وَّاحِدَۃً وَّ لٰکِنۡ یُّضِلُّ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ وَیَہۡدِیۡ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ ؕ وَلَتُسۡـَٔلُنَّ عَمَّا کُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۹۳﴾

Had God wanted, He would have made you into one ummah but [He has given you the freedom to choose; so now] He leads astray whomsoever He wants [because of misusing this freedom] and guides whomsoever He wants [according to His law.[71]] And He has conclusively communicated the truth to you; so,] you will also certainly be asked for whatever you are doing. (93)

وَ لَا تَتَّخِذُوۡۤا اَیۡمَانَکُمۡ دَخَلًۢا بَیۡنَکُمۡ فَتَزِلَّ قَدَمٌۢ بَعۡدَ ثُبُوۡتِہَا وَتَذُوۡقُوا السُّوۡٓءَ بِمَا صَدَدۡتُّمۡ عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ ۚوَ لَکُمۡ عَذَابٌ عَظِیۡمٌ﴿۹۴﴾ وَلَا تَشۡتَرُوۡا بِعَہۡدِ اللّٰہِ ثَمَنًا قَلِیۡلًا ؕ اِنَّمَا عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ ہُوَ خَیۡرٌ لَّکُمۡ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۹۵﴾

Do not make your oaths a means of mutual deception lest a firmly grounded step is undone[72] and you are made to taste the flavour of the punishment[73] because you stopped [people from] the path of God and [in the Hereafter] you are made to face a great punishment. Do not sell God's covenant for a paltry price.[74] [Creatures of God!] If you know, then whatever is with God is better for you. (94-95)

مَا عِنۡدَکُمۡ یَنۡفَدُ وَمَا عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ بَاقٍ ؕ وَ لَنَجۡزِیَنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ صَبَرُوۡۤا اَجۡرَہُمۡ بِاَحۡسَنِ مَا کَانُوۡا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۹۶﴾ مَنۡ عَمِلَ صَالِحًا مِّنۡ ذَکَرٍ اَوۡ اُنۡثٰی وَ ہُوَ مُؤۡمِنٌ فَلَنُحۡیِیَنَّہٗ حَیٰوۃً طَیِّبَۃً ۚ وَ لَنَجۡزِیَنَّہُمۡ اَجۡرَہُمۡ بِاَحۡسَنِ مَا کَانُوۡا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۹۷﴾

[Remember] whatever you have will finish [one day] and whatever is with God will remain. [This is a reward for deeds] and We shall definitely well reward those for their deeds who remained steadfast [for Our cause].[75] Whoever does a good deed whether man or woman,[76] if that person adheres to faith, We will make that person lead a life of purity [both in this world and in the Hereafter][77] and will definitely reward such people in the best way for their deeds. (96-97)

فَاِذَا قَرَاۡتَ الۡقُرۡاٰنَ فَاسۡتَعِذۡ بِاللّٰہِ مِنَ الشَّیۡطٰنِ الرَّجِیۡمِ ﴿۹۸﴾ اِنَّہٗ لَیۡسَ لَہٗ سُلۡطٰنٌ عَلَی الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَعَلٰی رَبِّہِمۡ یَتَوَکَّلُوۡنَ ﴿۹۹﴾ اِنَّمَا سُلۡطٰنُہٗ عَلَی الَّذِیۡنَ یَتَوَلَّوۡنَہٗ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ ہُمۡ بِہٖ مُشۡرِکُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۰﴾

So, [in order to warn them,] when you read out the Qur'an [before them, first] seek the refuge of God from Satan the accursed.[78] [He will definitely whisper evil suggestions to you; but remember] he has no power on those who have professed faith and who trust their Lord alone. He has power only on those who have friendship with him and associate partners with God. (98-100)

وَ اِذَا بَدَّلۡنَاۤ اٰیَۃً مَّکَانَ اٰیَۃٍ ۙ وَّ اللّٰہُ اَعۡلَمُ بِمَا یُنَزِّلُ قَالُوۡۤا اِنَّمَاۤ اَنۡتَ مُفۡتَرٍ ؕ بَلۡ اَکۡثَرُہُمۡ لَا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۱﴾ قُلۡ نَزَّلَہٗ رُوۡحُ الۡقُدُسِ مِنۡ رَّبِّکَ بِالۡحَقِّ لِیُـثَبِّتَ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَہُدًی وَّبُشۡرٰی لِلۡمُسۡلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۱۰۲﴾

[You observe that] when We reveal one verse in place of another[79] – and God knows full well what He reveals – they say that [this is an evidence to the fact that] you have fabricated it yourself.[80] [No,] in fact, [the reality is that] most of them do not know [the wisdom behind it]. Tell them: "The holy spirit has revealed this from your Lord with the truth[81] so it may keep the believers steadfast[82] and be a guide and a glad tiding for those who are obedient [to God]."[83] (101-102)

وَ لَقَدۡ نَعۡلَمُ اَنَّہُمۡ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ اِنَّمَا یُعَلِّمُہٗ بَشَرٌ ؕ لِسَانُ الَّذِیۡ یُلۡحِدُوۡنَ اِلَیۡہِ اَعۡجَمِیٌّ وَّہٰذَا لِسَانٌ عَرَبِیٌّ مُّبِیۡنٌ ﴿۱۰۳﴾ اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِاٰیٰتِ اللّٰہِ ۙ لَا یَہۡدِیۡہِمُ اللّٰہُ وَلَہُمۡ عَذَابٌ اَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۰۴﴾ اِنَّمَا یَفۡتَرِی الۡکَذِبَ الَّذِیۡنَ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِاٰیٰتِ اللّٰہِ ۚ وَ اُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡکٰذِبُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۵﴾

We very well know[84] that they say about you: "A person teaches him." The language of the person they ascribe him to is non-Arabic and this language is eloquent Arabic.[85] In reality, God never gives the urge to reach the truth to those who do not believe in God's revelations and a painful doom [awaits them as well. Our prophet has not fabricated a lie; in fact,] it is those people who are fabricating lies who do not believe in God's revelations and it is they who are in fact liars. (103-105)

مَنۡ کَفَرَ بِاللّٰہِ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ اِیۡمَانِہٖۤ اِلَّا مَنۡ اُکۡرِہَ وَ قَلۡبُہٗ مُطۡمَئِنٌّۢ بِالۡاِیۡمَانِ وَ لٰکِنۡ مَّنۡ شَرَحَ بِالۡکُفۡرِ صَدۡرًا فَعَلَیۡہِمۡ غَضَبٌ مِّنَ اللّٰہِ ۚ وَلَہُمۡ عَذَابٌ عَظِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۰۶﴾ ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّہُمُ اسۡتَحَبُّوا الۡحَیٰوۃَ الدُّنۡیَا عَلَی الۡاٰخِرَۃِ ۙ وَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ لَا یَہۡدِی الۡقَوۡمَ الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۰۷﴾ اُولٰٓئِکَ الَّذِیۡنَ طَبَعَ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی قُلُوۡبِہِمۡ وَ سَمۡعِہِمۡ وَ اَبۡصَارِہِمۡ ۚ وَ اُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡغٰفِلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۸﴾ لَاجَرَمَ اَنَّہُمۡ فِی الۡاٰخِرَۃِ ہُمُ الۡخٰسِرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۹﴾

[Believers! Those among you] who disbelieve after believing, if they are compelled and their heart is content on belief, then there is no penalty for this. But those who open their chests to disbelief, the wrath of God is on them and they will be sternly punished. This is because they gave preference to this world over the Hereafter and because God does not guide such disbelievers.[86] It is these people on whose hearts, ears and eyes God has set a seal[87] and it is they who are negligent [of the Hereafter]. Surely,[88] they will be the losers in the Hereafter. (106-109)

ثُمَّ اِنَّ رَبَّکَ لِلَّذِیۡنَ ہَاجَرُوۡا مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ مَا فُتِنُوۡا ثُمَّ جٰہَدُوۡا وَصَبَرُوۡۤا ۙ اِنَّ رَبَّکَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہَا لَغَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۱۰﴾ یَوۡمَ تَاۡتِیۡ کُلُّ نَفۡسٍ تُجَادِلُ عَنۡ نَّفۡسِہَا وَتُوَفّٰی کُلُّ نَفۡسٍ مَّا عَمِلَتۡ وَ ہُمۡ لَا یُظۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۱۱﴾

Then this too is a fact that those who migrated after they had been put into trials, then struggled [for the cause of God] and showed steadfastness,[89] your Lord undoubtedly is most forgiving and ever merciful after all this [they have done].[90] On the day, when each person will come speaking in his defence and each person will get exactly what he had done and no injustice shall people suffer. (110-111)

وَضَرَبَ اللّٰہُ مَثَلًا قَرۡیَۃً کَانَتۡ اٰمِنَۃً مُّطۡمَئِنَّۃً یَّاۡتِیۡہَا رِزۡقُہَا رَغَدًا مِّنۡ کُلِّ مَکَانٍ فَکَفَرَتۡ بِاَنۡعُمِ اللّٰہِ فَاَذَاقَہَا اللّٰہُ لِبَاسَ الۡجُوۡعِ وَ الۡخَوۡفِ بِمَا کَانُوۡا یَصۡنَعُوۡنَ ﴿۱۱۲﴾ وَلَقَدۡ جَآءَہُمۡ رَسُوۡلٌ مِّنۡہُمۡ فَکَذَّبُوۡہُ فَاَخَذَہُمُ الۡعَذَابُ وَہُمۡ ظٰلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۱۳﴾

[People of the Quraysh!] God cites [for you] the example of that settlement[91] which was passing its days with peace and contentment. Its sustenance was reaching it with abundance from all sides. Then it showed ingratitude to God's favours. So, God made it taste the flavour of hunger because of its misdeeds and made it wear the apparel of fear.[92] A messenger had come to them from among themselves; so, they rejected him. Then a torment seized them and they were the ones who were unjust to their own selves.[93] (112-113)

فَکُلُوۡا مِمَّا رَزَقَکُمُ اللّٰہُحَلٰلًا طَیِّبًا ۪ وَّ اشۡکُرُوۡا نِعۡمَتَ اللّٰہِ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ اِیَّاہُ تَعۡبُدُوۡنَ ﴿۱۱۴﴾ اِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَیۡکُمُ الۡمَیۡتَۃَ وَالدَّمَ وَ لَحۡمَ الۡخِنۡزِیۡرِ وَ مَاۤ اُہِلَّ لِغَیۡرِ اللّٰہِ بِہٖ ۚ فَمَنِ اضۡطُرَّ غَیۡرَ بَاغٍ وَّ لَا عَادٍ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۱۵﴾ وَ لَا تَقُوۡلُوۡا لِمَا تَصِفُ اَلۡسِنَتُکُمُ الۡکَذِبَ ہٰذَا حَلٰلٌ وَّ ہٰذَا حَرَامٌ لِّتَفۡتَرُوۡا عَلَی اللّٰہِ الۡکَذِبَ ؕ اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ یَفۡتَرُوۡنَ عَلَی اللّٰہِ الۡکَذِبَ لَا یُفۡلِحُوۡنَ ﴿۱۱۶﴾ؕ مَتَاعٌ قَلِیۡلٌ ۪ وَّلَہُمۡ عَذَابٌ اَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۱۷﴾

So, [seek a lesson from this fate of theirs and] eat the permissible and pure things that God has given you and be thankful to God's favours,[94] if you in fact only worship Him.[95] He has only prohibited to you carrion, blood, pork and meat [of animals] slaughtered such that the name of someone other than Him is invoked on them.[96] Yet, he who is driven by necessity intending neither to be desirous nor to transgress,[97] then there is no sin on him because God is forgiving and ever-merciful. On the basis of the lie that your tongues fabricate, do not say: "this is allowed and this is prohibited," that in such a way you impute falsehood to God. Remember those who impute falsehood to God will never succeed. This is a lavishness of a few days and [after this] a painful doom awaits them. (114-117)

وَعَلَی الَّذِیۡنَ ہَادُوۡا حَرَّمۡنَا مَا قَصَصۡنَا عَلَیۡکَ مِنۡ قَبۡلُ ۚ وَ مَا ظَلَمۡنٰہُمۡ وَ لٰکِنۡ کَانُوۡۤا اَنۡفُسَہُمۡ یَظۡلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۱۸﴾

And to the Jews, We had also prohibited the same things We have informed you of [earlier. As for all others besides these,] We have not been unjust to them; rather they have been unjust to their own selves.[98](118)

ثُمَّ اِنَّ رَبَّکَ لِلَّذِیۡنَ عَمِلُوا السُّوۡٓءَ بِجَہَالَۃٍ ثُمَّ تَابُوۡا مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ ذٰلِکَ وَ اَصۡلَحُوۡۤا ۙ اِنَّ رَبَّکَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہَا لَغَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۱۹﴾

Then for those who commit a sin while being overcome by emotions,[99]then afterwards repent and correct themselves, then after this [O Prophet!] Your Lord undoubtedly is very gracious and ever-merciful.[100](119)

اِنَّ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ کَانَ اُمَّۃً قَانِتًا لِّلّٰہِ حَنِیۡفًا ؕ وَ لَمۡ یَکُ مِنَ الۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ ﴿۱۲۰﴾ۙ شَاکِرًا لِّاَنۡعُمِہٖ ؕ اِجۡتَبٰہُ وَہَدٰىہُ اِلٰی صِرَاطٍ مُّسۡتَقِیۡمٍ ﴿۱۲۱﴾ وَ اٰتَیۡنٰہُ فِی الدُّنۡیَا حَسَنَۃً ؕ وَ اِنَّہٗ فِی الۡاٰخِرَۃِ لَمِنَ الصّٰلِحِیۡنَ ﴿۱۲۲﴾ؕ ثُمَّ اَوۡحَیۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡکَ اَنِ اتَّبِعۡ مِلَّۃَ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ حَنِیۡفًا ؕ وَ مَا کَانَ مِنَ الۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ ﴿۱۲۳﴾

[They should not attribute their superstitions to Abraham.] In reality, Abraham was an ummah [in his own self,][101] obedient to God and devoted and he was not from among the polytheists. He was grateful to His favours.[102] God chose him and had guided him towards a straight path. We granted him goodness in this world also[103] and in the Hereafter as well also he will be from among the righteous. [Then it is precisely because of this that] We sent this revelation to you: "Follow this way of Abraham[104] who was fullydevoted and was not among the polytheists." (120-123)

اِنَّمَا جُعِلَ السَّبۡتُ عَلَی الَّذِیۡنَ اخۡتَلَفُوۡا فِیۡہِ ؕوَ اِنَّ رَبَّکَ لَیَحۡکُمُ بَیۡنَہُمۡ یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ فِیۡمَا کَانُوۡا فِیۡہِ یَخۡتَلِفُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲۴﴾

[The harshness of the Sabbath also has no connection with Abraham.] This Sabbath was imposed only on those[105] who [because of their hairsplitting] had created differences in it. Your Lord shall certainly decide between them on the Day of Judgement in all what they have been differing. (124)

اُدۡعُ اِلٰی سَبِیۡلِ رَبِّکَ بِالۡحِکۡمَۃِ وَ الۡمَوۡعِظَۃِ الۡحَسَنَۃِ وَجَادِلۡہُمۡ بِالَّتِیۡ ہِیَ اَحۡسَنُ ؕ اِنَّ رَبَّکَ ہُوَ اَعۡلَمُ بِمَنۡ ضَلَّ عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِہٖ وَ ہُوَ اَعۡلَمُ بِالۡمُہۡتَدِیۡنَ ﴿۱۲۵﴾ وَ اِنۡ عَاقَبۡتُمۡ فَعَاقِبُوۡا بِمِثۡلِ مَا عُوۡقِبۡتُمۡ بِہٖ ؕ وَلَئِنۡ صَبَرۡتُمۡ لَہُوَ خَیۡرٌ لِّلصّٰبِرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۲۶﴾ وَ اصۡبِرۡ وَمَا صَبۡرُکَ اِلَّا بِاللّٰہِ وَلَا تَحۡزَنۡ عَلَیۡہِمۡ وَلَا تَکُ فِیۡ ضَیۡقٍ مِّمَّا یَمۡکُرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲۷﴾ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ مَعَ الَّذِیۡنَ اتَّقَوۡا وَّالَّذِیۡنَ ہُمۡ مُّحۡسِنُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲۸﴾

[O Prophet!] Call to the path of your Lord with wisdom and with sound advice and reason with them in a courteous manner. Surely, your Lord knows full well who has drifted from the path of his Lord and also knows very well those also who are guided. If you people seek revenge [at some instance] only seek it commensurate with what you have been inflicted with; yet if you show patience, then this is a lot better for those who show patience.[106] [O Prophet!] Show patience[107] – and you can acquire this patience only through a relationship with God[108] – and do not grieve on them and do not fret over the schemes they are plotting. Indeed, God is with those who adhere to piety and those who are thorough in their deeds.[109] (125-128)

(Translated by Dr Shehzad Saleem)

[50].I.e., when they were born, they were only a lump of flesh that is more unaware of its surroundings than even the young of an animal. Yet after this, God blessed them with such qualities that they feel proud of them. These favours were abundantly lavished on them so that they be grateful to God. However, it is strange that their ears, eyes and hearts are open to everything but closed to hear the word of God, to see His revelations and to reflect on the facts stated by Him.

[51].This is a reference to the appropriate physical structure of the birds and to the system of air above the earth without which it is not possible for them to fly.

[52].I.e., the signs of God's knowledge, wisdom, mercy and providence. The actual words are: لِقَوْمٍ يُوْمِنُوْنَ. The verb here expresses intention. The translation has kept this aspect in consideration.

[53].This is a mention of the leather tents which were once in great vogue in Arabia.

[54].I.e., at the time of departure, these tents could be easily folded and wrapped by them and if the time for them was to station at some place they could be easily laid out.

[55].I.e., the caves which were the first places of refuge on earth for human beings.

[56].The implication is that He makes arrangements to fulfill their needs from every possible aspect. In this part of the discourse, the things mentioned are specially the ones which were found in the rural life of Arabia. They were the foremost addressees of this Book. This aspect should be kept in mind at all such instances in the Qur'an because only then can the true effect of the words and their majesty can be gauged.

[57].This refers to those nations to which God had sent His messengers. It is these messengers who will be called forth on the Day of Judgement to bear witness to them.

[58].I.e., they deliberately denied after the messengers had conclusively conveyed the truth to them.

[59].This part of the sentence is suppressed because of concomitant indications.

[60].This is because after the truth has been conclusively conveyed to them by messengers, no such possibility remains.

[61].The polytheists will say this to absolve themselves so that their deities are regarded to be the real criminals since they were led astray by them. The real direction of harshness found ahead in the answer of those whom they associated with God is evident from this.

[62].Here polytheism is regarded as a fabrication. This is because ascribing something to God which has no evidence from Him is nothing but an imputation of fabrication to God.

[63].I.e., God will punish them for going astray and also for leading others astray. Thus, the punishment of those who led others astray will be ten times more than those who were led astray.

[64].I.e., guidance with regard to the beginning and mercy with regard to the fate.

[65].This great verse is a summary of all the dos and don'ts of the shari'ah. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

… The foundations of what the Qur'an directs people to do and what it stops people from doing are also indicated in this verse. The basis of all the dos of the Qur'an is justice ('adl), goodness (ihsan) and spending on kindred and the essence of disorder is found in its don'ts indicated comprehensively by the words lewdness (fahsha'), evil (munkar) and rebelliousness (baghi). The purpose of mentioning these here is to warn those who are trying their best to oppose the Qur'an so that they think about the teachings of the Book they are opposing and that doing this is tantamount to opposing justice and goodness and supporting evil and disorder. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 438)

The foundations of good and evil that are mentioned in this verse are totally in conformity with human nature. Thus, they have always been established in the religion given by God and the ten commandments of the Torah are based on these and the Qur'an too has actually explained them as part of its moral directives.

The first thing which the verse directs is justice ('adl). This means that whatever obligation is imposed on a person viz-a-viz a fellow human being, is discharged in the way it exactly is and in an impartial manner, whether his fellow human being is weak or powerful and whether he is liked or disliked by him.

The second thing mentioned in the verse is goodness (ihsan). It is over and above justice and is the pinnacle of ethics and morality. It means that not only should a right be fulfilled, but that it be fulfilled in a manner that a person is generous and considerate in this regard. A person should give more than what he owes and should be happy to take what is less than his due. This attitude develops in a society the values of sympathy, compassion, sacrifice, sincerity, gratitude and magnanimity. As a result of these values life becomes sweet and blessed.

The third thing mentioned is spending on one's near ones. It is one of the most important corollaries of goodness and determines one of its specific forms. It means that one's near ones are not merely worthy of justice and goodness from a person, they also deserve to be thought of as having a share in one's wealth. They should never be abandoned in case of need and deprivation and like a person's own family, their needs should also, as far as possible, be generously fulfilled.

In contrast, the verse has prohibited three things also.

The first of these is lewdness (fahsha'). It connotes fornication, homosexuality and similar acts of lewdness.

The second thing is evil (munkar). It is the opposite of ma'ruf and refers to evils which mankind has generally recognized as evils, has always called them evils and so obvious is their evil that no argument is needed to prove it. In every good tradition of religion and culture, they are regarded as bad. At another instance, the Qur'an, by using the word ithm for them, has clarified that they connote acts which are instrumental in usurping the rights of others.

The third thing is arrogance and rebelliousness (baghi). This of course means that a person takes undue advantage of his power and influence, exceeds his limits and tries to usurp the rights of others whether they are of his Creator or of his fellow human beings.

[66].From here the direction of address becomes direct. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

Earlier in verse 88, it has been mentioned that the miscreants among the Quraysh were trying their level best to stop people from the religion of God. Here, without naming them, the Jews are mentioned because at that stage, with all their guile and deception, they had started to support the campaign of stopping people from God's religion. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 441)

[67].I.e., the People of the Book should remember the covenant taken from them by Moses (sws) to obey the shari'ah of God and to help and support the prophet who would be born among the Ishmaelites and would not be conversant with reading and writing. The Torah actually details this covenant. For this reason, it is called the "Old Testament."

[68].Thus, it is not possible for anyone to save oneself from the accountability of the covenant pledged with God.

[69].The implication is that first they pledged a covenant with God, then braced it by swearing oaths but when the time came to fulfill it, they did precisely the same as a woman who first spun a thread and then shredded it to bits thereby ruining all her efforts.

The word الَّتِي occurs in this parable. Though it comes for a defined entity, but in parables this word only comes to portray the picture before the eyes. There is no need to refer it to some specific old woman.

[70].In this verse, before the word نْاَthe word مخافةor some other word of similar meaning is suppressed. The real motive of what the Jews were doing was that the Ishmaelites whom they called ummi may not overtake them in religious and political leadership. For this reason, they had done their level best to oppose Muhammad (sws). The words دَخَلًۢا بَیۡنَکُمۡ portray their struggle. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... This is a reference to the connivances and conspiraces the Jews undertook to stop people from accepting Islam or to shake and jolt those who had accepted Islam. By swearing oaths, they would try to convince people that the new religion was entirely different from the religion of God; that there was no proof of it in their scriptures nor had their prophets referred to it. Since the Jews were by and large invested with the sanction of religious holiness their oaths would create doubts in the hearts of those who were not fully aware of their machinations and hidden schemes. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 442)

[71].I.e., according to this law, those who are true seekers of guidance will definitely be guided.

[72].I.e., a person firmly grounded on the truth wavers and leaves Islam after accepting it.

[73].The actual words are: تَذُوْقُوْا السُّوْءَ. Here the word سُوْءconnotes its consequence. In this style, a verb actually connotes its consequence. The translation keeps this aspect into consideration.

[74].This does not mean that it can be sold at a bigger price. The negation here relates to the verb. Such qualifying words in a sentence are meant to refer to the grave nature of something. This style is common in other languages as well. Moreover, it also is a fact that if all the treasures of the world can be acquired against God's revelations, then they too are trivial.

[75].This refers to the believers who had become targets of all sorts of spiritual and corporeal sufferings at the hands of the unrelenting enemy.

[76].What is the reason for specifying this? Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... There is a special reason for this: in those times, just as Muslim men were passing through grave trials in order to remain steadfast on their faith, in a similar way many women were showing immense courage to save their faith and being the weaker sex their trial was much harder than that of the opposite gender. Here the Qur'an by mentioning women specially after men has shown affection to them and encouraged them: if they have decided to lead a life of faith and righteous deeds God will definitely make them lead a pure life. Devils cannot deprive them of this favour. God will not given them this opportunity. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 448)

[77].This is stated because in this world also the assurance and bliss the heart and the conscience receive because of faith and righteous deeds cannot be equated to the greatest of empires of a tyrant and defiant ruler. It is much more.

[78].This directs the Prophet (sws) to seek God's refuge when he presents the message of the Qur'an. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

The potent affectof the Qur'an is dependent on the state of the heart of a person. If a person seeks refuge of God through his tongue only, it does not have any influence on him. However, when this supplication comes out from the depth of his heart, he is braced with such force that it gives him support to counter the onslaught of Satan and his accomplices. This onslaught is a consequence of the trial which the Almighty has ordained in this world for human beings. Hence there is no escape from this in any situation. The hidden potential of a person comes to the surface because of this. If a person has the support of the blessing of seeking refuge with the Almighty, he can never be defeated by Satan and his agents. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 448)

[79].I e., replace a directive of the Torah with one from the Qur'an. This is a reference to the directives which are mentioned ahead and relate to what is lawful and unlawful and to the Sabbath.

[80].I.e., if the Torah is also a Book of God and they believe in it, then what do they mean when they say that God gives a law at one instance and then Himself changes this law by another one.

[81].The expression "Holy Spirit" refers to Gabriel and "revelation with the truth" means that he brought down the shari'ah of God in its precise pristine form devoid of the adulterations made by the Jews, Christians and the Ishmaelites.

[82].I.e., after seeing religion in its pure and unadulterated form, they should rest assured that the truth has been revealed to them and not waver from their place.

[83].I.e., guidance with regard to the beginning and a glad tiding with regard to the fate.

[84].The actual words are: وَلَقَدْ نَعْلَمُ. An incomplete verb is suppressed in them in accordance with linguistic principles. I.e. وَلَقَدْ كُنَّا نَعْلَمُ.

[85].It is evident from certain historical narratives that there were some non-Arab slaves in Makkah. Since most of them were Jews or Christians, after merely seeing that they read the Torah and Gospel, the Quraysh without any hesitation fabricated an accusation regarding one of them that it was in fact that person who was authoring the Qur'an. Here the Qur'an has responded to this accusation. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... The prelude to the response to criticism is couched in such words that the baselessness of the objection becomes evident. This is because it is concealed in the words وَلَقَدْ نَعْلَمُ that the Almighty is continuously listening to the nonsensical talk of those who are objecting but not taking notice of it because of its baselessness. After this, it is said that if these foolish people do not have any appreciation of the Qur'an's meanings and the truths it is presenting, if they had only reflected on the splendour and majesty of its style and the unmatched eloquence of its language they would have seen that none of their poets or orators was able enough to match it let alone non-Arabs. So much so, there is a world of difference even between it and the words of the Prophet (sws). (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 451)

[86]. Ie., God does not guide those who believe that faith and religion are true but because of difficulties remain engulfed in disbelief. He opens the doors of His guidance to only those who if they even become helpless in such circumstances the farthest they go is to utter some words of disbelief which may temporarily save them from a calamity.

[87]. Ie., have sealed these faculties because they rejected Islam in spite of being convinced of its veracity. This is an application of the established practice of God with regards to providing guidance. It has been explained under verse 7 of Surah al-Baqarah.

[88]. The actual words are: لاَ جَرَمَ. They mean لا بدand محالة لا and are used to emphasize something. Yet in in certain contexts and occasions carry the same stress as oaths do.

[89]. This is a reference to the migration to Abyssinia and the struggle for the cause of God refers to their heroic feats they undertook to persevere on the religion of God.

[90]. Ie., even if they succumbed to any mistake or oversight God will forgive them and bless them with His mercy because of their deeds.

[91]. This is an example of every settelement towards which a messenger is sent. The most prominent of these were settlements the destruction of which had become proverbial in their literature.

[92]. The actual words are: فَاَذَاقَہَا اللّٰہُ لِبَاسَ الۡجُوۡعِ وَ الۡخَوۡفِ. Some parts of this sentence are suppressed in accordance with linguistic principles. If they are revealed, the whole discourse will be to the effect: فأَذَاقَهَا اللّهُ طُعْمَ الجُوْعِ وَ أَلْبَسَهَا لِبَاسَ الْخَوْفِ. The translation keeps this suppression into account.

[93]. The implication is that God was not unjust to them. They were unjust to themselves.

[94]. Ie., they must not regard something pure and permissible to be prohibited due to their polytheistic superstitions. This is ingratitude to God's favours and the people of Saba were guilty of this and thereby reached the fate mentioned earlier.

[95]. This is stated because in spite of being incriminated with all sorts of polytheistic nonsense the Makkan Quraysh claimed that they worshipped God only and the reason they worshipped their idols was that they would procure God's proximity. Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi writes:

... They believed that their idols were the near and favoured ones of God. If they were pleased, then they could intercede with God and procure for the Quraysh anything they wanted. It was because of this notion that they presented offerings to them and would dedicate animals to them. Those animals were regarded as sacred such that neither was their meat and milk allowed to be consumed nor could they be used as a means of transport. The Qur'an has dispelled this misconception here: if they claim to be worshippers of God alone, then only He should be thanked for the favours He has provided. They should neither ascribe these favours to others nor present offerings to them and also not regard what is lawful and what is not because of them. (Amin Ahsan Islahi,Tadabbur-i Qur'an, vol. 4, 459)

[96]. Ie., out of the things which are regarded as pure and wholesome by those who eat, it is only these four which are prohibited. Blood because it inclines a person to beastliness; meat of dead animals because blood remains in the vessels in those of them which die a natural death; pig because though it belongs the herbivourous animal species, yet it eats meat like carnivores; animals not slaughtered in the name of God because this is explicit polytheism which can be committed by only those who have become rebellious to God. As for unwholesome things, they do not need to be specified because their prohibition is found in human nature and human beings have always known that they should be abstained from.

[97]. The actual words are: غَیۡرَ بَاغٍ وَّ لَا عَادٍ. The word بَاغٍ is a nomen agentis (ism al-fa'il) from بغی يبغي. It is evident from the fact that the word عَادٍ is coordinated to it that here it means to desire and demand. This is a statement of exemption in compelling circumstances when nothing is available to eat.

[98]. Reference is towards things which were prohibited to the Jews to punish them for their rebelliousness. This is because they themselves had prohibited these things out of their own desires while showing disregard to God and His directives. As a consequence, God too prohibited these things for them.

[99]. The actual word is: جَهَالَة. Though it also means "ignorance," its dominant meaning is to do some mischief or sin while being overcome by emotions. Thus in Arabic, this word is generally used as an opposite to restraint (حلم) instead of knowledge (علم).

[100]. Every person of literary taste can understand the eloquence of the style in which these people are asked to repent and mend their ways after the warnings sounded to them earlier.

[101]. The implication is that he was neither a jew nor a christian and had an independent existence; he was not just an individual but a person from whom emanated a great ummah to bear witness to the religion of truth before all mankind.

[102]. Thus he could not even imagine to be ungrateful and decide what animals are lawful and not lawful by ascribing animals created by God to idols and tombs, the way they are doing.

[103]. This is a reference to the wealth and status, majesty and splendour the Almighty blessed Abraham (sws) with in this world after he had migrated from Babylon and it became possible for his progeny to gradually own the area where he had settled them.

[104]. Ie., adopt religion in the same form and shape in which Abraham (sws) had left it. Thus there should not be any semblance of polytheism in their beliefs and deeds nor any trace of religious innovations in them the way they are found among the Jews, Christians and the polytheists of Arabia. They should give currency to the prayer, the fast, the hajj, the zakah and other religious deeds and customs and etiquette after cleansing them from all adulterations so that they are observed the way they were in the times of Abraham (sws). All matters related to what is lawful and what is unlawful should also return to their original form and it should become evident to everyone that they are in fact the real followers of the religion of Abraham (sws) and that their opponents have no relation with him.

Here it should be kept in mind that the part of religion which is called Sunnah has been instituted under this directive. Hence it is mandatory to be followed the way other directives of the Qur'an are. The directives of the Sunnah which have been transferred by the consensus and perpetual concurrence once Muhammad (sws) had revived and reformed some of them and also added certain directives to them are the following:

i. The Prayer

ii. Zakah and Sadaqah of 'Id al-Fitr

iii. Fasting and I'tikaf

iv. Hajjand 'Umrah

v. Animal Sacrifice and the Takbirs during the days of Tashriq

vi. Marriage and Divorce and their relevant details

vii. Abstention from coitus during the menstrual and the puerperal period

viii. Prohibition of pork, blood, meat of dead animals and animals slaughtered in the name of someone other than Allah

ix. Slaughtering in the prescribed manner of tadhkiyah by pronouncing Allah's name

x. Remembering Allah's name before eating or drinking and using the right hand for eating and drinking

xi. Greeting one another with al-Salamu 'Alaykum (peace be to you) and responding with Wa 'Alaykum al-Salam (and peace be to you)

xii. Saying al-Hamdulillah (praise be to Allah) after sneezing and responding to it by saying Yarhamukallah (may Allah have mercy on you)

xiii. Keeping moustaches trimmed

xiv. Shaving pubic hair

xv. Removing the hairs under the armpits

xvi. Paring fingernails

xvii. Circumcising the male offspring

xviii. Cleaning the nose, the mouth and the teeth

xix. Cleaning the body after excretion and urination

xx. Bathing after the menstrual and the puerperal periods

xxi. Ghusl al-janabah

xxii. Bathing the dead before burial

xxiii. Enshrouding a dead body and preparing it for burial

xxiv. Burying the dead

xxv. 'Id al-Fitr

xxvi 'Id al-Adha

[105]. Ie., on the Jews who because of their differences had violated the sanctity of that day and as a result God had made the directives of the Sabbath from harsh to harsher for them. If a person wants to see the details, he can look up the books of Exodus, Numbers, Jeremiah and Ezekiel of the Bible.

[106].These things form the foundation of preaching religion. The directive of God that is mentioned in these verses is based on the following points:

Firstly, wisdom, kindly exhortation and sound discussion should permeate the tone of this preaching. In the above quoted verses, by wisdom (hikmah) is meant the arguments and kindly exhortation means urging the addressees through sincere reminders. The implication is that whatever is presented should be supported by arguments and presented in the light of knowledge and intellect and one should not be aggressive and forceful in one's presentation. One's tone should reflect sincerity and affection. If the stage reaches that of debate and argument, then this should be done in a most befitting manner. If the opponent becomes hostile and antagonistic, then instead of responding in an even more belligerent manner, a true preacher should always remain polite and civilized.

Secondly, the responsibility of a preacher is that of preaching only: he should communicate the truth and elucidate it, and in no way show any slackness in urging and exhorting people towards it. If he discharges this responsibility in a befitting manner, he fulfils an obligation. It is the Almighty Who decides to give guidance to a person or to lead him astray. He knows full well those who have erred and also those who are rightly guided. He shall thus deal with a person in a manner he is worthy of. A preacher should not try to force the truth on others nor should he give verdicts about the fate a person shall meet in the Hereafter. This is the sole prerogative of the Almighty, and the only responsibility of a preacher is to communicate the truth, and he must not exceed this.

Thirdly, if the addressees of preaching resort to oppression and inflict harm on the preacher, he is allowed to avenge it in a proportion commensurate with the harm inflicted while remaining within moral limits; however, in the eyes of God, it is better that a person bears this oppression without avenging it; he should not take any measure of revenge; neither should he change his stance after being overwhelmed with hardships. Those who show patience at these instances are promised great rewards. Not only will they face its good consequence in this world, they will also encounter good consequences in the Hereafter.

[107]. Though this is addressed to the Prophet (sws) it is evident from the context that this directive is directed to all Muslims through him.

[108]. Together with the directive of patience, here the way to acquire patience is also delineated: one should try to strengthen one's relationship with God as far as possible. At other instances in the Qur'an, it is specified that the means to acquire patience is by remembering God of which the highest form is the prayer. The emphasis on the tahajjud prayer in the Qur'an is due to this very reason.

[109]. Ie., in all the deeds they do imagine themselves to be in the presence of God.

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