Chapter VIII

 

 

 

Here are some questions, which would help in thrashing out the solution to the problem:

      1)   Had Abraham any son who could genuinely have been claimed to be his ‘only son’ upto the age of his being circumstantially suitable to be offered for sacrifice?

      2)   Did that ‘only son’ permanently live with his father Abraham or had he been shifted to somewhere else to be settled there? What was the name and location of that place?

      3)   Is there any evidence of this ‘only son’s’ progeny having been perpetuated at the place of his new settlement [Paran and Beersheba]?

      4)   Is there any tradition related to this ‘only son’s’ having been offered there for sacrifice by his father Abraham?

      5)   Is this tradition of Abraham’s offering his ‘only son’ for sacrifice related to any mountain in that land of Moriah?

      6)   Are there any physical remains pertaining to the act of the sacrifice near this mount ‘Moriah’ of the Bible (al-Marwah of the Arabs)?  

      7)   Is there any Concrete, Physical, and Material evidence of the presence of Ishma‘el, his mother Hagar, and his father Abraham at the site of this ‘Moriah’?

      8)   Are there any festivities having perpetually been celebrated to commemorate this great event of Abraham’s offering his ‘only son’ for sacrifice there; and are these festivities related to some places around this ‘Moriah’?

      9)   Is there any other tradition among the Arabs that confirms their relation to Abraham and Ishma‘el?

    10)Is there any building or sanctuary in the vicinity of this ‘al-Marwah’ (‘Moriah’ of the Bible), whose construction has been assigned to the patriarchs Abraham and Ishma‘el; ?

    11)Are there any traces which confirm that the construction of al-Ka’bah had been undertaken by Abraham and Ishma‘el?

    12)Is there any evidence of Isaac or his progeny having ever been to some ‘Moriah’ to commemorate Isaac’s having been offered for sacrifice?

    13)Does the Bible state where Ishma‘el and his mother Hagar had breathed their last and what is their burial site; in the way as it gives these details about Abraham, his wife Sarah, and his son Isaac; and why?

    14)Is there any established tradition regarding the burying place of Ishma‘el and his mother Hagar amongst the Arabs, who are the historically established progeny of Ishma‘el?

    15)Why has this ambiguity been created by the redactors of the Bible?


 

 

 

The Questions Answered

 

As regards the 1st question (Had Abraham any son who could genuinely have been claimed to be his ‘only son’ upto the age of his being circumstantially suitable to be offered for sacrifice?), Ishma‘el was Abraham’s firstborn son, who remained his ‘only son’ for nearly fourteen years. The age of thirteen years circumstantially suits and is compatible to all considerations for his being offered for sacrifice.

As regards the 2nd question (Did that ‘only son’ permanently live with his father Abraham or had he been shifted to somewhere else to be settled there? What was the name and location of that place?), Ishma‘el, together with his mother Hagar, had been shifted by his father Abraham to the wilderness of Paran in the land of Moriah, near Beersheba (Well of Seven[1]); and they had settled there permanently. Abraham himself, along with his first wife, Sarah, had settled in Hebron and Beersheba (Well of Oath[2]) in Southern Canaan. Beersheba (Well of Seven) has been explained in Supplement I and the wilderness of Paran has been discussed in detail by this writer elsewhere. As to Moriah, it has been discussed in detail in chapters V, VI, VII, and VIII of this book 

 

As regards the 3rd question (Is there any evidence of this ‘only son’s’ progeny having been perpetuated at the place of his new settlement [Paran and Beersheba]?), it is the factual position that Ishma‘el’s progeny has been living in Makkah and other parts of Arabia since time immemorial, and is still living there. The Bible claims that Hagar and Ishma‘el had been settled by Abraham in the Wilderness of Paran and Beersheba, and both of these places have allegedly been claimed to be located in Sinai. But, even according to the Bible, there are no traces of any Ishma‘elites in Sinai. That they have been living around Makkah in Arabia, has been discussed in detail in the next chapter of this book.

 

As regards the 4th question (Is there any traditioin related to this ‘only son’ having been offered there for sacrifice by his father Abraham?), it is a ground reality that millions of pilgrims travel to Makkah in the lunar month of Dhu al-Hijjah to offer sacrifice in commemoration of Abraham’s offering his ‘only son’, Ishma‘el, for sacrifice. Hundreds of millions of people offer the same sacrifice in their home-towns at the same time. This tradition has come down for centuries before the advent of Islām. Nowhere on earth is celebrated any such tradition to commemorate any so-called offering of Isaac for sacrifice by his father Abraham.

The horns of the ram offered in place of Ishma‘el remained preserved in al-Ka’bah until 64 AH/683 AD, when the Ka’bah was rebuilt by Abd Allah b. Zubayr. The Enc. of Islām has recorded:

The two horns of Abraham’s ram did not crumble to dust until the rebuilding of the Ka’bah by ‘Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr.[3]

 

It is recorded both in Biblical and Muslim tradition that the son going to be offered for sacrifice was ransomed with a ram. A renowned Muslim scholar and commentator of the Holy Qur’an, Mawlana Amin Ahsan Islahi, while explaining the Quranic verse 37:107 in his magnum opus Tadabbur-e-Qur’an asserts:

 Allah asserts: ‘We ransomed Ishma‘el with a great sacrifice.’ It indicates that We instructed Abraham to offer a ram as sacrifice in lieu of this son. And this act of offering shall perpetually be commemorated as the memorial to this great event in the form of a great ritual of offering throughout the nations of the world. It is this very offering which, being included in the rituals of pilgrimage, has been perpetuating the memory of the event since the times of Abraham and shall endure for ever till the doomsday — It should be borne in mind here that although the ritual of offering is being performed in all the religions of the world since the times of Adam, but no ritual of offering could achieve such significance, importance, expansion, and universality in the world; as Abraham’s this act of offering.[4]

The event has been recorded in the Bible in the follwing words:

And Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son.(11) And the angel of the Lord called unto him out of heaven, and said, Abraham, Abraham: and he said, Here am I.(12) And he said, Lay not thine hand upon the lad, neither do thou any thing upon him: for now I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son from me.(13) And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold behind him a ram caught in a thicket by his horns: and Abraham went and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt offering in the stead of his son.(…).(15) And the angel of the Lord called unto Abraham out of heaven the second time,(16) And said, By myself have I sworn, saith the Lord, for because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine onlyson:(17) That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies;(18) And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed my voice.[5]

 

As regards the 5th question (Is this tradition of Abraham’s offering his ‘only son’ for sacrifice related to any mountain in that land of Moriah?),it is only the mountainous region in the land of ‘Moriah’ at Makkah, to which the tradition of Abraham’s offering his ‘only son’, Ishma‘el, for sacrifice is related. The Arabic word for Moriah (מוריה) is Marwah (מרוה). In Hebrew[6]‘Moriah’ is composed of five letters, whereas ‘Marwah’ is composed of four letters. The first and the last letters, i.e., ‘Meem’ (M) and ‘He’ (H)  are common in both the words. The middle letters ‘R’ [ר] (Res) and ‘W’ [ו] (Waw) are resembling letters in Hebrew, as can be appreciated through observing them. They are often interchanged by the scribes. As far as the letter ‘Yodh’ [י] or ‘Y’ is concerned, it is a very small letter in Hebrew alphabet and is likely to be omitted or inserted due to some negligence or misunderstanding of a scribe. It is quite probable that the actual word may have been ‘Marwah’, which would have been mistakenly recorded as ‘Moriah’ in the Bible by some scribe, because Moriah/Marwah was not a commonly used word in the Biblical literature. There can be another possibility: the difference in ‘Moriah’ and ‘Marwah’ may be the variations of pronunciation between the Arabic language and the Hebrew language due to the change of the geographic conditions; as is common in so many cases. A construing reader might be aware of some instances of such cases.

 

As regards the 6th question (Are there any physical remains pertaining to the act of the sacrifice near this Mount ‘Moriah’ of the Bible — al-Marwah of the Arab tradition?), it is interesting to note that the horns of the ram which was offered in the stead of Ishma‘el had been preserved in the Ka’bah and they remained there until 64 AH/ AD 683. Wensinck and Jomier have reported in the Enc. of Islam in their article on the ‘Ka’bah’ that at the time of the conquest of Makkah in8/629:

All the pagan trappings which had adhered to the Ka‘ba were now thrust aside. (…). The two horns of Abraham’s ram did not crumble to dust until the rebuilding of the Ka‘ba by ‘Abd Allāh b. Zubayr.[7]

 

As regards the 7th question (Is there any Concrete, Physical, and Material evidence of the presence of Ishma’el, his mother Hagar, and his father Abraham at the site of this ‘Moriah’?), there exists a lot of such evidence. There exist the Black Stone, the Mi’jan, Maqām Ibrāhīm, the well of Zamzam, and theGraves of Hagar and Ishma’el in Hatīm in close vicinity of the Ka’bah.

About the ‘Black Stone, which is claimed to have been fixed at a corner of the Ka’bah by the patriarchs, the Enc. of Religion states:

The Black stone is of unknown pre-Islamic origin, possibly meteoric.[8]

There isthe Mi’jan in very close vicinity of the Ka’bah. A. J. Wensinck has provided the following details about it:

(…); a depression in it [the Ka’bah] just opposite the door has still to be mentioned; it is called al-mi’djan ‘the trough’; according to legend, Ibrahim and Isma’il here mixed the mortar used in building the Ka’bah.[9]

There is the Maqām Ibrāhīm, about which ‘The Enc. of Religion’ explains:

Near the Ka’bah stands a gilded glass case (replacing an earlier simple wooden framework) that contains a stone marking the station of Ibrahim (Abraham). This stone is said to have miraculously preserved the footprint of Ibrahim, Who stood on it in order to complete the construction of an earlier Ka’bah: it is, as it were, the builder’s mark.[10]

A. J. Wensinck has explained the Maqām Ibrāhīm as follows:

Between this archway [al-Hatim] and the facade (N.E.) is a little building with a small dome, the makam Ibrahim. In it is kept a stone bearing the prints of two human feet. The patriarch Ibrahim, father of Isma’il, is said to have stood on his feet when building the Ka’bah and the marks of his feet were miraculously preserved.[11]

There is The well of Zamzam, which stands quite close to the Ka’bah. ‘The Enc. of Religion’, although arbitrarily names it as a myth, explains:

Opposite the corner of the Black Stone is a small building housing the sacred well of Zamzam, from which pilgrims drink water at the conclusion of their circumambulations and prayers. Its origin is mythically associated with Hajar (Hagar) and Ismail (Ishmael), for whom God provided water in this desert place after commanding Ibrahim to abandon mother and child and promising to care for them in his place.[12]

Then there are the Graves of Hagar and Ishma‘el in Hatīm.A. J. Wensinck explaining the rituals and places of the Islāmic Pilgrimage in its article on the ‘Ka’bah’in ‘The Enc. of Islam’has given the following details about it:

Opposite the north-west wall, but not connected with it, is a semi-circular wall (al-hatim) (…). The semi-circular space between the hatim and the Ka’bah enjoys an especial consideration, because for a time it belonged to the Ka’bah;(…). The space bears the name al-hidjr or hidjr Isma’il [lap of Ishma‘el]. Here are said to be the graves of the patriarch [Isma’il] and his mother Hagar.[13]

 

As regards the 8th question (Are there any festivities having perpetually been celebrated to commemorate this great event of Abraham’s offering his ‘only son’ for sacrifice there; and are these festivities related to some places around this ‘Moriah’?), there have been a number of festivitiesrelated to this offering having perpetually been celebrated by the Arabs centuries before the advent of Islam. These festivities are related to a number of places around this ‘Moriah’. There are the seven rounds of running between ‘al-Safa’ and ‘al-Marwah’ called sa‘y. This sa‘y is performed by millions of pilgrims undertaking Hajj in the month of Dhu al-Hijjah or performing ‘Umrah the whole year through. It is performed to commemorate the similar running by Hagar in search of water for her son Ishma‘el. The ritual of sa‘y so meticulously depicts and retains the event that in the course of their sa‘y the pilgrims resort to jogging at a certain space, marked with green lights these days, where Hagar had resorted to it. It is in the declivity of the Mas‘ā where Hagar had to run fast, because she could not see his son in that slope.[14]Then there is the offering for sacrifice of goats, sheep, rams, camels, etc. on the festival of ‘Eid al-Adhā’ by hundreds of millions of Muslims throughout the world and by millions of Muslim pilgrims at Makkah during the days of Hajj. Again there is the water of ‘Zamzam’ or ‘Beersheba’(Well of Seven) taken by the pilgrims as a sacred drink. It is the very spring which gushed out for the relief of Ishma‘el in that waterless terrain. It wonderfully supplies the water for a large population the whole year through and is also taken home by the millions of pilgrims throughout the world in large quantities as souvenir. Then again there is a ritual of the Islāmic Pilgrimage called ‘Talbiyah’. According to it the pilgrims, when put on the proper uniform of the Pilgrimage called ‘Ihrām’, begin to assert this ‘Talbiyah’until they enter into the ‘Holy Mosque’:

Here I am, O Allah, here I am; here I am, there is no associate to You, here I am; verily all the praise, and all the grace, and all the kingdom belong to You, there is no partner to You.

It is to commemorate the alacrity (quickness and readiness) of Abraham to offer his only son for sacrifice when God tempted him. When God called him, he said, ‘Behold, here I am[15].

 

As regards the 9th question (Is there any other tradition among the Arabs that confirms their relation to Abraham and Ishma‘el?), there does exist the tradition of circumcision which had been strictly observed amongst the Arabs to represent the tradition of their ancestors, Abraham and Ishma‘el. Islām extended the continuation of this tradition amongst its followers in the same way as it has been observed amongst the Jews as a sign of Abraham’s covenant. Had the Arabs not been the descendants of Abraham through his son Ishma‘el, there had been no question of their observing this tradition and their attributing it to Abraham and Ishma‘el. It is not without significance that the Enc. Biblica has observed that the rite of circumcision may have been the typification of the tradition of offering the firstborn:

(…), and, indeed, the evidence goes to show that in exceptional cases the offering was actually made. However, just as the first-fruits were offered as a part of the whole, it is conceivable that originally the rite of circumcision was instituted upon the same principle to typify the offering of the firstborn.[16]

Flavius Josephus has also observed in his ‘Antiquities’ (written more than five hundred years before the advent of Islām) that the rite of circumcision had been exercised amongst the Arabians to commemorate the circumcisionof the founder of their nation, Ishma‘el:

And they circumcised him upon the eighth day. And from that time the Jews continue the custom of circumcising their sons within that number of days. But as for the Arabians, they circumcise after the thirteenth year, because Ismael, the founder of their nation, who was born to Abraham of the concubine, was circumcised at that age;[17]

 

As regards the 10th question (Is there any building or sanctuary in the vicinity of this ‘al-Marwah’ [‘Moriah’ of the Bible], whose construction has been assigned to the patriarchs, Abraham and Ishma‘el?),there is the sanctuary of ‘al-Ka’bah’in the vicinity of this ‘al-Marwah’ or ‘Moriah’, whose constructionhas been assigned to the patriarchs, Abraham and Ishma‘el; and there is reasonable evidence of the perpetuity of this tradition. The renowned translator of the Qur’ān into English,George Sale, has recorded in his ‘The Preliminary Discourse’ the existence of this sanctuary of ‘al-Ka’bah’ at Makkah as follows:

The temple of Mecca was a place of worship, and in singular veneration with the Arabs from great antiquity, and many centuries before Mohammed (…) the Mohammedans are generally persuaded that the Caaba (…) was rebuilt by Abraham and Ismael, at God’s command,(…). After this edifice had undergone several reparations, it was a few years after the birth of Mohammed, rebuilt by the Koreish on the old foundation,(…). Before we leave the temple of Mecca, two or three particulars deserve further notice. One is the celebrated black stone, which is set in silver, and fixed in the south-east corner of the Caaba,(…). Another thing observable in this temple is the stone in Abraham’s place, wherein they pretend to show his footsteps, telling us he stood on it when he built the Caaba, and that it served him for scaffold,(…). The last thing I shall take notice of the temple is the well Zem-zem, on the east side of the Caaba,(…). The Mohammedans are persuaded that it is the very spring which gushed out for the relief of Ismael, when Hagar his mother wandered with him in the desert, and some pretend it was so named from her calling to him, when she spied it, in the Egyptian tongue, Zem, zem, that is, ‘Stay, stay,’ [18]

Professor Palmer, the well known translator of the Qur’ān into the English language, says in his introduction to the Qur’ān:

The traditions of Abraham the father of their race and the founder of Muhammad’s own religion, as he always declared him to be, no doubt gave the ancient temple a peculiar sanctity in the Prophet’s eyes, and although he had first settled upon Jerusalem as his Qiblah, he afterwards reverted to the Kaabah itself. Here, then, Muhammad found a shrine, to which, as well as at which, devotion had been paid from time immemorial; it was one thing which the scattered Arabian nation had in common¾the one thing which gave them even the shadow of a national feeling; and to have dreamed of abolishing it, or even of diminishing the honours paid to it, would have been madness and ruin to his enterprise. He therefore did the next best thing, he cleared it of idols and dedicated it to the service of God.[19]

Some more evidence is being noted below which testifies the existence of al-Ka’bah at Makkah from times immemorial. C. E. Bosworth attests the antiquity of al-Ka’bah in Enc. Americana in the following words:

The Kaaba was almost certainly an important shrine of a well attested Semitic pattern, in pre-Islamic times. It is not clear when it was first associated with the rites of the Pilgrimage, which itself must be of pre-Islamic origin. Muslim tradition traces it to Abraham and Ishmael. The Prophet Mohammed cleansed the Kaaba of its idols and its pagan features in 630.[20]

Edward J. Jurji asserts in Colliers Encyclopedia that the Quraysh were the custodians of al-Ka’bah and preservers of the Ishma‘elite tradition:

As custodians of Kaaba and preservers of the Ishmaelite tradition, the Quraysh tribe presided over its pagan worship until Mohammed appropriated it for his new faith, [21]

The Encyclopedia of Religion states that the Ka’bah had undoubtedly existed for several centuries before the birth of Muhammad:

The historical origin of the Ka’bah is uncertain, but it had undoubtedly existed for several centuries before the birth of Muhammad(c. 570 CE). By his time it was the principal religious shrine of central Arabia and, located at the centre of a sacred territory (haram), had the characteristic of a Semitic sanctuary.[22]

The renowned Egyptian geographer of the ancient times, Claudius Ptolemaeus(commonly known as Ptolemy, c. 90-168 AD) has also mentioned the existence of a temple near Makkah, for which he uses the word ‘Macoraba’:

It is to be noted that Ptolemy (Geography, vi.7) in place of Mecca mentions Macoraba, which is probably to be interpreted, as does Glaser, as the South Arabian or Ethiopic mikrāb, ‘temple’. From this one may conclude that the Ka‘ba already existed in the second century A. D.[23]

Shorter Enc. Of Islam has noted some other evidence to it as well:

The information available regarding the distribution of the offices among the sons of Kusaiy shows that the worship of the sanctuary had developed into a carefully regulated cult several generations before Muhammad.[24]

The Ka‘ba had offerings dedicated to it in the heathen as well as the Muslim period. Al-Azrakī devotes a detailed chapter to this subject (ed. Wustenfeld, p. 155 sqq.).[25]

 

As regards the 11th question (Are there any traces which confirm that the construction of al-Ka’bah had been undertaken by Abraham and Ishma‘el?), there had been a depression in the Matāf just opposite the door of the Ka’bah where Ishma‘el and Abraham mixed the mortar used in building the Ka’bah. The Enc. of Islām has recorded it as follows:

The pavement on which the tawāf is performed is called matāf; a depression in it just opposite the door has still to be mentioned; it is called al-mi‘djan ‘the trough’; according to legend, Ibrāhim and Ismā‘il [q.v.] here mixed the mortar used in building the Ka‘ba.[26]

Then there is the Maqām Ibrāhīm, which is another evidence of the Ka‘bah having been built by Abraham. The Enc. of Islām explains:

Between this archway and the facade (N.E.) is a little building with a small dome, the makam Ibrahīm. In it is kept a stone bearing the prints of two human feet. The patriarch Ibrahim, father of Isma‘il, is said to have stood on this stone when building the Ka‘ba and the marks of his feet were miraculously preserved.[27]    

 

As regards the 12th question (Is there any evidence of Isaac or his progeny having ever been to some ‘Moriah’ to commemorate Isaac’s having been offered for sacrifice?), there is neither in the Bible or in the traditions of the Arabs any evidence of Isaac having ever been to some ‘Moriah’; nor is there any evidence in the Bible or the annals of history in favour of the progeny of Isaac having frequented to ‘Moriah’ for offering sacrifices and performing any pilgrimage. On the other hand this ‘Marwah’ is a celebrated spot of offering sacrifice by the pre-Islamic Arabian tribes from the times immemorial and subsequently by the whole of the Muslim world, in memory of Abraham’s offering his ‘only son’ for sacrifice.Of course, the descendents of Ishma‘el, the Arabs, have been observing the ritual centuries rather millennia before Islam, following their Ancestor’s offerings.

 

As regards the 13th question (Does the Bible state where Ishma‘el and his mother Hagar had breathed their last and what is their burial site; in the manner as it gives these details about Abraham, his wife Sarah, and his son Isaac; and why?), it is interesting to note that the Bible is totally silent about Ishma‘eland Hagar’s burying place; whereas it states categorically that the cave of Macphelah at Hebron in Canaan was the burial ground of Abraham[28], his wife Sarah[29], and his son Isaac[30]. As to the question ‘why’, it can only be assumed that it was due to the disregard, disinterest, unconcern, indifference, and apathy, rather rivalry and jealousy, of the Israelites towards their brethren or cousins, Ishma‘elites.

 

As regards the 14th question (Is there any established tradition regarding the burying place of Ishma‘el and his mother Hagar amongst the Arabs — who are the historically established progeny of Ishma‘el?), the answer is a positive ‘Yes’. A. J. Wensinck and J. Jomier in their article on ‘Ka‘ba’ in the ‘Enc. of Islām’ write:

The space (al-hatim) bears the name al-hidjr or hidjr Isma‘il. Here are said to be the graves of the patriarch and his mother Hagar.[31]

The New Standard Encyclopaedia observes:

Ishmael Son of Abraham and Hagar. He was exiled with his mother to the wilderness on account of Sarah’s jealousy of him. He married an Egyptian, was famed as an archer and was buried in Mecca. Mahomet claimed him as an ancestor.[32]

 

As regards the 15th question (Why has this ambiguity been created by the redactors of the Bible?), the answer is quite clear. It is merely because they wanted to attach reverence and respect to their forefather Isaac. The Chronicler forged for them the basis for this ambition through arbitrarily attributing the name of ‘Moriah’ to the site of the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite. This ambiguity would never have gained ground, had the Chronicler not fabricated and imposed it in his ‘Chronicles’ to attach sanctity to the Solomon’s Temple. It is interesting to note that the ‘Chronicles’ had long been a non-canonical and rejected book.[33]There is another aspect of this theme. In fact Abraham’s offering cannot be treated as a merit for the son, if the son is not taken into confidence for the task. Isaac did not know that he was going to be offered even to the last momet. That’s why he asks his father Abraham, ‘Behold the fire and the wood: but where is the lamb for a burnt offering?[34]’ Even then, Abraham did not think it advisable to disclose to him that it was him whom he was going to offer for the sacrifice; and rather says, ‘My son, God will provide himself a lamb for a burnt offering.[35]’ Thus the act of offering could only have been to the credit of Abraham who was going to be ‘tempted’ by God; and no credit could have been attributed to Isaac who had been totally ignorant of his going to be offered for sacrifice by his father. But, as regards Ishma‘el, he was not only taken into full confidence by his father Abraham, but he willingly endorsed the idea, surrendered to the will of God, and offered himself for sacrifice at the hands of his father. The Qur’ān records the event as follows:

قَالُوا ابْنُوا لَهُ بُنْيَانًا فَأَلْقُوهُ فِي الْجَحِيمِ·فَأَرَادُوا بِهِ كَيْدًا فَجَعَلْنَاهُمُ الْأَسْفَلِينَ·وَقَالَ إِنِّي ذَاهِبٌ إِلَى رَبِّي سَيَهْدِينِ·رَبِّ هَبْ لِي مِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ·فَبَشَّرْنَاهُ بِغُلَامٍ حَلِيمٍ·فَلَمَّا بَلَغَ مَعَهُ السَّعْيَ قَالَ يَا بُنَيَّ إِنِّي أَرَى فِي الْمَنَامِ أَنِّي أَذْبَحُكَ فَانظُرْ مَاذَا تَرَى قَالَ يَا أَبَتِ افْعَلْ مَا تُؤْمَرُ سَتَجِدُنِي إِن شَاء اللَّهُ مِنَ الصَّابِرِينَ·فَلَمَّا أَسْلَمَا وَتَلَّهُ لِلْجَبِينِ·وَنَادَيْنَاهُ أَنْ يَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ·قَدْ صَدَّقْتَ الرُّؤْيَا إِنَّا كَذَلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُحْسِنِينَ·إِنَّ هَذَا لَهُوَ الْبَلَاء الْمُبِينُ·وَفَدَيْنَاهُ بِذِبْحٍ عَظِيمٍ·وَتَرَكْنَا عَلَيْهِ فِي الْآخِرِينَ·سَلَامٌ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ·كَذَلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُحْسِنِينَ·إِنَّهُ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا الْمُؤْمِنِينَ·وَبَشَّرْنَاهُ بِإِسْحَقَ نَبِيًّا مِّنَ الصَّالِحِينَ·وَبَارَكْنَا عَلَيْهِ وَعَلَى إِسْحَقَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِهِمَا مُحْسِنٌ وَظَالِمٌ لِّنَفْسِهِ مُبِينٌ

Said they, ‘Build for him [Abraham]a pyre, and throw him into the flaming hell!’ They desired to plot against him, but we made them inferior. Said he, ‘Verily, I am going to my Lord, He will guide me. My Lord! Grant me(a son), one of the righteous;’ and we gave him glad tidings of a clement and patient boy. And when he reached the age to work with him, he said, ‘O my boy! Verily, I have seen in a dream that I should sacrifice thee[36],look then what thou seest right.’ Said he, ‘O my sire! Do what thou art bidden; thou wilt find me, if please God, one of the patient!’ And when they were resigned, and Abraham had thrown him down upon his forehead, we called to him, ‘O Abraham! Thou hast verified the vision; verily, thus do we reward those who do well. This is surely an obvious trial.’ And we ransomed him with a mighty victim; and we left for him amongst posterity, ‘Peace upon Abraham; thus do we reward those who do well; verily, he was of our servants who believe!’ And we gave him glad tidings of Isaac, a prophet among the righteous; and we blessed him and Isaac;– of their seed is one who does well, and one who obviously wrongs himself.[37]

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