Purpose of Divine Books

 

وَ اَنۡزَلَ مَعَہُمُ  الۡکِتٰبَ بِالۡحَقِّ لِیَحۡکُمَ بَیۡنَ النَّاسِ فِیۡمَا اخۡتَلَفُوۡا فِیۡہِ. (213:2)

And with these [prophets], God sent down His Book as the decisivetruth so that it may settle [religious] differences between people. (2:213)

 

وَ اَنۡزَلۡنَا مَعَہُمُ  الۡکِتٰبَ وَ الۡمِیۡزَانَ لِیَقُوۡمَ النَّاسُ بِالۡقِسۡطِ.(25:57)

And with these [messengers] We sent down Our Book which is the Judge [between the right and the wrong] so that [through it] people are able to adhere to justice [regarding what is the truth]. (57:25)

 

 

Belief in all Divine Books

 

یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اٰمِنُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ وَ رَسُوۡلِہٖ وَ الۡکِتٰبِ الَّذِیۡ نَزَّلَ عَلٰی رَسُوۡلِہٖ وَ الۡکِتٰبِ الَّذِیۡۤ اَنۡزَلَ مِنۡ قَبۡلُ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّکۡفُرۡ بِاللّٰہِ وَ مَلٰٓئِکَتِہٖ وَ کُتُبِہٖ وَ رُسُلِہٖ وَ الۡیَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ فَقَدۡ ضَلَّ  ضَلٰلًۢا  بَعِیۡدًا. (136:4)

Believers! Profess faith in God and His Messenger, in the Book He has revealed to His Messenger, and also in the Book He revealed earlier. And [remember that] he who denies God, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers and the Last Day has strayed far. (4:136)

 

 

Ten Commandments of the Qur’an

 

لَا تَجۡعَلۡ مَعَ اللّٰہِ اِلٰـہًا اٰخَرَ  فَتَقۡعُدَ مَذۡمُوۡمًا  مَّخۡذُوۡلًا. وَ قَضٰی رَبُّکَ اَلَّا تَعۡبُدُوۡۤا اِلَّاۤ  اِیَّاہُ وَ بِالۡوَالِدَیۡنِ اِحۡسَانًا ؕ اِمَّا یَبۡلُغَنَّ عِنۡدَکَ الۡکِبَرَ اَحَدُہُمَاۤ  اَوۡ  کِلٰہُمَا فَلَا تَقُلۡ لَّہُمَاۤ  اُفٍّ  وَّ لَا  تَنۡہَرۡہُمَا وَ قُلۡ  لَّہُمَا  قَوۡلًا کَرِیۡمًا. وَ اخۡفِضۡ لَہُمَا جَنَاحَ الذُّلِّ مِنَ الرَّحۡمَۃِ  وَ قُلۡ  رَّبِّ  ارۡحَمۡہُمَا کَمَا رَبَّیٰنِیۡ  صَغِیۡرًا. رَبُّکُمۡ اَعۡلَمُ بِمَا فِیۡ نُفُوۡسِکُمۡ ؕ اِنۡ تَکُوۡنُوۡا صٰلِحِیۡنَ فَاِنَّہٗ  کَانَ  لِلۡاَوَّابِیۡنَ غَفُوۡرًا. وَ اٰتِ ذَاالۡقُرۡبٰی حَقَّہٗ  وَ الۡمِسۡکِیۡنَ وَ ابۡنَ  السَّبِیۡلِ  وَ لَا  تُبَذِّرۡ  تَبۡذِیۡرًا. اِنَّ الۡمُبَذِّرِیۡنَ کَانُوۡۤا اِخۡوَانَ الشَّیٰطِیۡنِ ؕ وَ کَانَ الشَّیۡطٰنُ لِرَبِّہٖ کَفُوۡرًا. وَ اِمَّا تُعۡرِضَنَّ عَنۡہُمُ ابۡتِغَآءَ رَحۡمَۃٍ مِّنۡ رَّبِّکَ تَرۡجُوۡہَا فَقُلۡ لَّہُمۡ قَوۡلًا مَّیۡسُوۡرًا. وَ لَا تَجۡعَلۡ یَدَکَ مَغۡلُوۡلَۃً  اِلٰی عُنُقِکَ  وَ لَا تَبۡسُطۡہَا کُلَّ الۡبَسۡطِ فَتَقۡعُدَ مَلُوۡمًا  مَّحۡسُوۡرًا. اِنَّ رَبَّکَ یَبۡسُطُ الرِّزۡقَ لِمَنۡ یَّشَآءُ وَ یَقۡدِرُ ؕ اِنَّہٗ کَانَ بِعِبَادِہٖ خَبِیۡرًۢا بَصِیۡرًا. وَ لَا تَقۡتُلُوۡۤا  اَوۡلَادَکُمۡ  خَشۡیَۃَ  اِمۡلَاقٍ ؕ نَحۡنُ نَرۡزُقُہُمۡ  وَ  اِیَّاکُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ  قَتۡلَہُمۡ کَانَ خِطۡاً کَبِیۡرًا. وَ لَا تَقۡرَبُوا الزِّنٰۤی اِنَّہٗ کَانَ فَاحِشَۃً ؕ وَ سَآءَ  سَبِیۡلًا. وَ لَا تَقۡتُلُوا النَّفۡسَ الَّتِیۡ حَرَّمَ اللّٰہُ  اِلَّا بِالۡحَقِّ ؕ وَ مَنۡ قُتِلَ مَظۡلُوۡمًا فَقَدۡ جَعَلۡنَا لِوَلِیِّہٖ سُلۡطٰنًا فَلَا یُسۡرِفۡ فِّی الۡقَتۡلِ ؕ اِنَّہٗ  کَانَ  مَنۡصُوۡرًا. وَ لَا تَقۡرَبُوۡا مَالَ الۡیَتِیۡمِ  اِلَّا بِالَّتِیۡ  ہِیَ اَحۡسَنُ حَتّٰی یَبۡلُغَ  اَشُدَّہٗ ۪ وَ اَوۡفُوۡا بِالۡعَہۡدِ ۚ اِنَّ  الۡعَہۡدَ  کَانَ  مَسۡـُٔوۡلًا. وَ اَوۡفُوا الۡکَیۡلَ اِذَا کِلۡتُمۡ وَ زِنُوۡا بِالۡقِسۡطَاسِ الۡمُسۡتَقِیۡمِ ؕ ذٰلِکَ خَیۡرٌ  وَّ اَحۡسَنُ  تَاۡوِیۡلًا. وَ لَا تَقۡفُ مَا لَیۡسَ لَکَ بِہٖ عِلۡمٌ ؕ اِنَّ السَّمۡعَ وَ الۡبَصَرَ وَ الۡفُؤَادَ  کُلُّ  اُولٰٓئِکَ کَانَ  عَنۡہُ  مَسۡـُٔوۡلًا. وَ لَا تَمۡشِ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ مَرَحًا ۚ اِنَّکَ  لَنۡ تَخۡرِقَ الۡاَرۡضَ وَ لَنۡ تَبۡلُغَ الۡجِبَالَ طُوۡلًا. کُلُّ ذٰلِکَ کَانَ سَیِّئُہٗ عِنۡدَ رَبِّکَ مَکۡرُوۡہًا. (17: 22-38)

And make no other deity than God, lest [on the Day of Judgement] you are left blameworthy and disgraced. And your Lord has enjoined you to worship none but Him, and to be very kind to your parents. If either or both of them reach old age in your presence, be not ill-tempered with them, nor scold them; but speak to them respectfully and treat them with humility and tenderness and pray: “Lord! Shower your mercy on them the way they cared for me in childhood.” Your Lord fully knows what is in your hearts; if you remain obedient, He is very forgiving to those who turn to Him. And give to the near of kinfolk their due, and also to the needy and the traveller. And do not squander your wealth wastefully, for the wasteful are Satan’s brothers; and Satan is very ungrateful to his Lord. And if you have to ignore [those in need] because you are still seeking your Lord’s bounty for which you are waiting, then at least speak to them gently. And do not be stingy or extravagant so that you should either earn reproach or be reduced to indigence. Indeed, your Lord gives profusely to whom He pleases and sparingly to whom He pleases. He is aware of His servants and observes them. And do not kill your children fearing poverty. We provide them as well as you. This is because killing them is a very dreadful crime. And do not even go near adultery because it is blatant vulgarity and a very evil path. And do not unjustly kill any person whose life has been held sacred by God and if a person is killed unjustly, We have given his heir an authority. Then he too must not exceed bounds in his revenge because he has been helped. And do not even go near the wealth of orphans except in a goodly manner, until they reach maturity. And keep your promises because promises will be subject to accountability. Give full measure, when you measure, and weigh with correct scales. This is better and fairer with regard to the consequences. And do not go after what you know not because eyes, ears, and heart – each of them shall be held accountable. And tread not the earth with arrogance because neither can you cleave asunder the earth, nor reach the height of the mountains. The evil of each of these to your Lord is very displeasing. (17:22-38)

 

 

Inimitability of the Qur’an

 

وَاِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ فِیۡ رَیۡبٍ مِّمَّا نَزَّلۡنَا عَلٰی عَبۡدِنَا فَاۡتُوۡا بِسُوۡرَۃٍ مِّنۡ مِّثۡلِہٖ ۪ وَ ادۡعُوۡا شُہَدَآءَکُمۡ مِّنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ  اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ صٰدِقِیۡنَ .(23:2)

And if you doubt what We have revealed to Our servant, produce just one surah like it, and for this call all your supporters except God if you are truthful [in your claim]. (2:23)

 

قُلۡ لَّئِنِ اجۡتَمَعَتِ الۡاِنۡسُ وَ الۡجِنُّ عَلٰۤی اَنۡ یَّاۡتُوۡا بِمِثۡلِ ہٰذَا الۡقُرۡاٰنِ لَا یَاۡتُوۡنَ بِمِثۡلِہٖ وَ لَوۡ کَانَ بَعۡضُہُمۡ لِبَعۡضٍ  ظَہِیۡرًا. (88:17)

Tell them: “If men and jinn combined to produce a book like this Qur’an, they would be not be able to do so even if they become helpers of one another.” (17:88)

 

 

Arrangement of the Qur’an

 

وَ لَقَدۡ اٰتَیۡنٰکَ سَبۡعًا مِّنَ الۡمَثَانِیۡ وَ الۡقُرۡاٰنَ  الۡعَظِیۡمَ.(87:15)

And [O Prophet!] We have given you seven groups whose surahs occur in pairs which is this great Qur’an. (15:87)

 

 

Final Authority of the Qur’an

 

اَللّٰہُ  الَّذِیۡۤ  اَنۡزَلَ الۡکِتٰبَ بِالۡحَقِّ وَ الۡمِیۡزَانَ ؕ وَ مَا یُدۡرِیۡکَ لَعَلَّ  السَّاعَۃَ قَرِیۡبٌ.(17:42)

It is God who has revealed with truth the Book which is the scale. (42:17)

 

وَ اَنۡزَلۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡکَ الۡکِتٰبَ بِالۡحَقِّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَیۡنَ یَدَیۡہِ مِنَ الۡکِتٰبِ وَ مُہَیۡمِنًا عَلَیۡہِ فَاحۡکُمۡ  بَیۡنَہُمۡ بِمَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ وَ لَا تَتَّبِعۡ اَہۡوَآءَہُمۡ عَمَّا جَآءَکَ مِنَ الۡحَقِّ.(5: 48)

And [O Prophet!] We have revealed to you this Book with truth in confirmation of the Book before it, and standing as a guardian over it. So, decide among them in accordance with the guidance revealed by God, and do not yield to their whims by swerving from the truth revealed to you. (5:48)

 

 

The Qur’an as the Final Testament

 

وَ اَنۡزَلۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡکَ الۡکِتٰبَ بِالۡحَقِّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَیۡنَ یَدَیۡہِ مِنَ الۡکِتٰبِ وَ مُہَیۡمِنًا عَلَیۡہِ فَاحۡکُمۡ  بَیۡنَہُمۡ بِمَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ وَ لَا تَتَّبِعۡ اَہۡوَآءَہُمۡ عَمَّا جَآءَکَ مِنَ الۡحَقِّ ؕ لِکُلٍّ جَعَلۡنَا مِنۡکُمۡ شِرۡعَۃً وَّ مِنۡہَاجًا ؕ وَ لَوۡ  شَآءَ اللّٰہُ لَجَعَلَکُمۡ اُمَّۃً وَّاحِدَۃً  وَّ لٰکِنۡ  لِّیَبۡلُوَکُمۡ فِیۡ مَاۤ اٰتٰىکُمۡ فَاسۡتَبِقُوا الۡخَیۡرٰتِ ؕ اِلَی اللّٰہِ مَرۡجِعُکُمۡ جَمِیۡعًا فَیُنَبِّئُکُمۡ بِمَا کُنۡتُمۡ  فِیۡہِ  تَخۡتَلِفُوۡنَ.(5: 48)

And [O Muhammad!] We have revealed to you the Book with the truth in confirmation of the Book before it, and standing as a guardian over it. Therefore give judgement among these [People of the Book] according to the guidance revealed by God and do not yield to their whims by swerving from the truth revealed to you. For each of you, We have ordained a shari‘ah and assigned a path, and had God pleased, He could have made of you one community: but it is His wish to try you by that which He has bestowed upon you. So, compete with each other in good deeds. To God shall you all return. Then He shall disclose upon you all your differences.(5:48)

 

 

Qur’an’s Guidance

 

اِنَّ ہٰذَا  الۡقُرۡاٰنَ  یَہۡدِیۡ  لِلَّتِیۡہِ یَاَقۡوَمُ وَ یُبَشِّرُ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ الَّذِیۡنَ یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ الصّٰلِحٰتِ اَنَّ لَہُمۡ اَجۡرًا کَبِیۡرًا. (17: 9)

Indeed, this Qur’an guides to the path which is absolutely straight and gives glad tidings of a great reward to the believers who do righteous deeds. (17:9)

 

 

Qur’an: The Rope of God

 

وَ اعۡتَصِمُوۡا بِحَبۡلِ اللّٰہِ جَمِیۡعًا وَّ لَا تَفَرَّقُوۡا۪ وَ اذۡکُرُوۡا نِعۡمَتَ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡکُمۡ اِذۡ  کُنۡتُمۡ اَعۡدَآءً فَاَلَّفَ بَیۡنَ قُلُوۡبِکُمۡ فَاَصۡبَحۡتُمۡ بِنِعۡمَتِہٖۤ اِخۡوَانًاۚ وَ کُنۡتُمۡ عَلٰی شَفَا حُفۡرَۃٍ مِّنَ النَّارِ فَاَنۡقَذَکُمۡ مِّنۡہَاؕ کَذٰلِکَ یُبَیِّنُ اللّٰہُ لَکُمۡ اٰیٰتِہٖ  لَعَلَّکُمۡ  تَہۡتَدُوۡنَ.(3:١٠3)

And hold fast to the ropeof God and be not divided. And bear in mind God’s favour on you when you were enemies of one another so He united your hearts and with His grace you became brothers and you stood at the very brink of an abyss of fire and He saved you from it.In this manner, God explains to you His revelations so that you may be guided. (3:103)

 

 

Compilation of the Qur’an

 

لَا تُحَرِّکۡ بِہٖ لِسَانَکَ لِتَعۡجَلَ بِہٖ. اِنَّ عَلَیۡنَا جَمۡعَہٗ  وَ  قُرۡاٰنَہٗ. فَاِذَا قَرَاۡنٰہُ  فَاتَّبِعۡ  قُرۡاٰنَہٗ. ثُمَّ  اِنَّ عَلَیۡنَا بَیَانَہٗ.(75: 16-19)

[To acquire] this [Qur’an] swiftly [O Muhammad!] do not move your tongue hastily over it. Indeed, upon Us is its collection and recital. So, when We have recited it, follow this recital [of Ours]. Then upon Us is to explain it [wherever need be]. (75:16-19)

 

 

Subject Matter of the Qur’an

 

وَ اُوۡحِیَ اِلَیَّ  ہٰذَا الۡقُرۡاٰنُ لِاُنۡذِرَکُمۡ بِہٖ وَمَنۡۢ بَلَغَ.(19:6)

And this Qur’an has been revealed to me so that I may warn you through it and all whom it may reach. (6:19)

 

 

Divinity of the Qur’an

 

اَفَلَا یَتَدَبَّرُوۡنَ الۡقُرۡاٰنَ ؕ وَ لَوۡ  کَانَ مِنۡ عِنۡدِ غَیۡرِ اللّٰہِ لَوَجَدُوۡا فِیۡہِ اخۡتِلَافًا کَثِیۡرًا.(82:4)

Do they not reflect on the Qur’an? Had it come from someone other than God, they would have found many contradictions in it. (4:82)

 

 

Divine Protection of the Qur’an

 

اِنَّا نَحۡنُ نَزَّلۡنَا الذِّکۡرَ  وَ  اِنَّا  لَہٗ  لَحٰفِظُوۡنَ.(9:15)

It was We Who revealed this Reminder, and We Ourselves shall protect it. (15:9)

 

وَ  اِنَّہٗ   لَکِتٰبٌ عَزِیۡزٌ. لَّا یَاۡتِیۡہِ  الۡبَاطِلُ مِنۡۢ بَیۡنِ یَدَیۡہِ وَ لَا مِنۡ خَلۡفِہٖ ؕ تَنۡزِیۡلٌ مِّنۡ حَکِیۡمٍ حَمِیۡدٍ.(41: 41-42)

And it indeed is a powerful book. Falsehood can neither enter from its front nor from its back. It is a revelation from a wise and glorious God. (41:41-42)

 

 

Common Source of the Qur’an and other Scriptures

 

نَزَّلَ عَلَیۡکَ الۡکِتٰبَ بِالۡحَقِّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَیۡنَ یَدَیۡہِ وَ اَنۡزَلَ التَّوۡرٰىۃَ وَ الۡاِنۡجِیۡلَ. مِنۡ قَبۡلُ ہُدًی لِّلنَّاسِ وَ اَنۡزَلَ الۡفُرۡقَانَ ۬ؕ اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِ اللّٰہِ لَہُمۡ عَذَابٌ شَدِیۡدٌ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَزِیۡزٌ ذُو انۡتِقَامٍ.(3: 3-4)

[O Prophet!] He has revealed to you the Book with the truth, in confirmation of the scriptures which preceded it; and before this He has already revealed the Torah and the Gospel for the guidance of mankind, and [after them] revealed this furqan. Indeed, for those who deny God’s revelations is a grievous punishment. And God is Mighty and Capable of Retribution. (3:3-4)

 

اِنَّاۤ اَوۡحَیۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡکَ کَمَاۤ اَوۡحَیۡنَاۤ اِلٰی نُوۡحٍ وَّ النَّبِیّٖنَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہٖ ۚ وَ اَوۡحَیۡنَاۤ اِلٰۤی اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ وَ اِسۡمٰعِیۡلَ وَ اِسۡحٰقَ وَ یَعۡقُوۡبَ وَ الۡاَسۡبَاطِ وَ عِیۡسٰی وَ اَیُّوۡبَ وَ یُوۡنُسَ وَ ہٰرُوۡنَ وَ سُلَیۡمٰنَ ۚ وَ اٰتَیۡنَا دَاوٗدَ  زَبُوۡرًا. (163:4)

[O Muhammad!] We have sent revelations to you as We sent revelations to Noah and to the prophets who came after him, and as We sent revelations to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and his progeny and to Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, Solomon, and to David, We gave the Psalms. (4:163)

 

 

The Qur’an’s Praise for the Bible

 

وَ کَیۡفَ یُحَکِّمُوۡنَکَ وَ عِنۡدَہُمُ  التَّوۡرٰىۃُ فِیۡہَا حُکۡمُ اللّٰہِ.(5: 43)

And how do they come to you [O Prophet!] for a verdict when they already have the Torah with them which contains God’s own directive. (5:43)

 

اِنَّاۤ  اَنۡزَلۡنَا التَّوۡرٰىۃَ فِیۡہَا ہُدًی وَّ نُوۡرٌ.(5:44)

We have revealed the Torah in which there is guidance and light. (5:44)

 

وَ فِیۡ نُسۡخَتِہَا ہُدًی وَّ رَحۡمَۃٌ  لِّلَّذِیۡنَ ہُمۡ  لِرَبِّہِمۡ یَرۡہَبُوۡنَ.(7: 154)

And in the Torah’s written text is guidance and mercy for people who fear their Lord. (7:154).

 

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