After faith, the second important requirement of religion is purification of morals. This means that a person should cleanse his attitude both towards his creator and towards his fellow human beings. This is what is termed as a righteous deed. All the sharī‘ah is its corollary. With the change and evolution in societies and civilizations, the sharī‘ah has indeed changed; however faith and righteous deeds, which are the foundations of religion, have not undergone any change. The Qur’ān is absolutely clear that any person who brings forth these two things before the Almighty on the Day of Judgement will be blessed with Paradise, which shall be his eternal abode. The Qur’ān has also made it clear that just as the Almighty has blessed a person with eyes to see and ears to hear, similarly, he has blessed him with a faculty which distinguishes good and evil for him. A person is not mere body and intellect. He is also a moral being. This means that the ability to distinguish good from evil and the appreciation that good is good and evil is evil is innately found in him. This appreciation of good from evil is a universal reality. Thus when the most evil of persons does something wrong, he tries to hide it in the first phase. Same is the case with good. A person loves what is good and respects and reveres it. When he establishes a society, he always sets up a system of justice in it. This is ample testimony of his innate ability to distinguish between good and evil. No doubt, at times, a person may justify a sin he commits, however, at the very time he invents excuses for this justification, he very well knows that he is inventing these excuses against his nature. The reason for this is that if someone else commits the same sin against him, he regards it to be an evil without any hesitation, and vehemently protests against that person. However, in the interpretation of this innate ability to distinguish between good and evil, there could have been differences because of different circumstances and periods of time and because of a variation in perception between people themselves. It is a great blessing of the Almighty that He has not even left any possibility for such differences and wherever there could have been a likelihood of any major difference, He delineated good and evil through His messengers. The guidance provided by these messengers is now eternally enshrined in the Qur’ān. This guidance testifies to whatever a person finds within himself. Furthermore, man’s intuitive knowledge, in fact even his empirical knowledge, knowledge derived from natural and physical laws as well as knowledge derived from intellect all bear witness to it. Consequently, good and bad morals, as a result of this, can be fully ascertained.


1. Fundamental Principle

In this regard, the fundamental principle is that God enjoins justice, kindness and spending on the kindred, and forbids lewdness, evil and arrogance. All this is in conformity with human nature and hence they have been acknowledged in divine religions. The ten commandments of the Torah are based on these and the Qur’ān too has actually explained them as part of its moral directives. An explanation of these follows. The first thing is justice. This means that whatever obligation is imposed on a person viz a viz a fellow human, he discharges it the way it exactly is and in an impartial manner, whether his fellow human being is weak or powerful and whether he is liked or disliked by us. The second thing is kindness (ihsān). It is over and above justice and is the pinnacle of ethics and morality. It means that not only should a right be fulfilled, it should be fulfilled in a manner that a person is generous and considerate in this regard. A person should give more than what is due on him and should be happy to take what is less than his due. It is this attitude which develops in a society the values of love, sympathy, compassion, sacrifice, sincerity, gratitude and magnanimity. It is a result of these values that life becomes sweet and blessed. The third thing mentioned is spending on the near ones. It is one of the most important corollaries of kindness and determines one of its specific forms. It means that the near ones are not merely worthy of justice and kindness from a person, they also deserve to be thought of as having a share in one’s wealth. They should never be abandoned in case of need and deprivation and like a person’s own family, their needs should also, as far as possible, be generously fulfilled. In contrast, three things also are prohibited. The first of these is lewdness. It connotes fornication, homosexuality and similar acts of lewdness. The second thing is evil. It refers to sins which mankind has generally recognized as sins, has always called them sins and so obvious is the evil in them that no argument is needed to prove it. In every good tradition of religion and culture, they are regarded as bad. At one instance, the Qur’ān, by using the word munkar and at another by using the word ithm for them, has clarified that they connote acts which are instrumental in usurping the rights of others. The third thing is arrogance and rebelliousness. It means that a person takes undue advantage of his power and influence, exceeds his limits and tries to usurp the rights of others whether they are of his Creator or of his fellow human beings.


2. Good and Bad Morals

The Qur’ān has explained the brevity found in the basic principle stated above in a manner that what is morally sound and what is morally unsound is clearly ascertained. The section of verses in which they are mentioned begins with the prohibition of polytheism and also ends on its emphatic forbiddance. Such a style is adopted in the Qur’ān to highlight the importance of something. Here, the objective is to delineate the fact that it is the belief in monotheism which is like a boundary wall that encircles the directives of religion mentioned in these verses. If this boundary wall is damaged everything that lies within it is exposed to danger. No doubt, this is the supreme status of monotheism which these verses mention. It is the greatest and the most fundamental requisite of justice which the Qur’ān directs its followers to dispense. For this very reason, polytheism is called a great wrong (zulmun ‘azīmun). The Qur’ān has also clearly stated the result of this great wrong: it is an unforgivable sin in the eyes of God in retribution of which people shall be humiliated and thrown into Hell. What is polytheism? Associating other gods with God Almighty is termed as polytheism (shirk) in the terminology of the Qur’ān. It means: a) to regard someone to have the same genre as that of God or to regard God to have the same genre as someone; or b) to regard someone to have a role in creation or in running the affairs of the creatures and in this manner make someone God’s peer to some extent or another. Examples of the first type of polytheism are the beliefs of Christians and the Polytheists of Arabia about Jesus (sws) and Mary (sws) and about the angels respectively. The belief of wahdat al-wujūd of the mystics is another example of this. Examples of the second type are the beliefs regarding Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva in Hinduism and the beliefs regarding Ghaws, Qutb, Abdāl, Dātā and Gharīb Nawāz among Muslims. Belief in evil spirits and stars and in the powers of Satan, also belong to this category of polytheism. The details of other directives which are mentioned in this regard are as follows:

i. Worshipping God

The first directive is that since there is no god except God, only He should be worshipped. The essence of this worship (‘ibādah) is humility and servility, as has been indicated earlier. The foremost manifestation of this essence is serving the Almighty. Since a person also has a practical existence in this world, this servitude relates to this practical existence as well and in this manner becomes inclusive of obedience. The manifestations in the first case are glorifying Him and singing His praises, praying to him and supplicating before Him, kneeling and prostrating before Him, making vows (to please Him), offering animal sacrifice and doing i‘tikāf. In the second case, a person, after regarding someone as an independent law giver and ruler, considers that He has the authority to give directives of what is forbidden and what is not and what is allowed and what is not and submits before all His directives. It is the verdict of God Almighty that none of the above mentioned things can be reserved for someone other than Him. Thus if a person glorifies someone and sings his praises or prays and supplicates before someone, kneels and prostrates before him or presents vows before him or offers animal sacrifice to him or does i‘tikāf for him or regards him to have the authority of prohibiting or allowing things, then this would mean that he has refused to accept this verdict of God.

ii. Treating Parents with Kindness

The second directive is that parents should be treated with kindness. This directive is present in all divine scriptures. There is no doubt in the fact that among human beings a person’s foremost obligation is towards his parents. Thus after worshipping God, Muslims have been directed to fulfill it the foremost. The reason for this is that it is the parents who bring a person into existence and it is they who nourish and look after him. The Almighty has counseled man to be thankful to both his parents the foremost after God. This gratitude is not to be expressed merely through the tongue. There are some essential requisites of this gratitude which the Qur’ān has related. The first thing mentioned is that a person should treat his parents in a manner that he shows respect to them not only outwardly but also from the depth of his heart. He should not show any aversion to them in his heart and also not say something before them which is against manners. In fact, he should treat them with love, affection and decency and in a manner that reflects his obedience to them. He should obey them and in the frailty of old age, comfort them and be a means of re-assurance to them. The second thing mentioned in this verse is that a person should always show obedience and compliance to his parents and this obedience should arise from his love and affection for them. Just as parents hide and protect their children the way birds do through their wings, in a similar manner, children too should hide and protect their elderly parents in their wings of love and obedience. The reason is that if ever children can repay their parents for their care it is through this attitude. Without this attitude, this right of the parents can in no way be fulfilled. The third thing that is mentioned besides the above behaviour is that a person should keep praying for his parents that the way his parents raised him with affection and care, the Almighty should also shower His blessings on them in this old age. This prayer is a right of the parents on their children and it is also a reminder for a person to fulfill this right imposed on him. This prayer is also the motive for the feelings of love which the Almighty has demanded from the children in treating their parents with kindness. In relationships which develop with other people besides the parents, a person should have this same attitude in proportion to their closeness to him. Thus the Almighty has also counseled a person to treat his relatives, the orphan and the destitute, his neighbours, the traveler and his subordinates with kindness.

iii. Spending in the Way of God

The third directive is to spend in the way of God. This means that just as a person spends on himself the blessings bestowed upon him by God, he should also spend them on his fellow brethren after fulfilling his personal and business needs. It is evident from the Qur’ān that two things are required for a person if he is to become a true servant of God: Firstly, his relationship with God should be established on right footings. Secondly, his relationship with other human beings should also be established on right footings. The first thing is achieved through the prayer which is the foremost expression of one’s love for God, and the second through spending in the way of God for this is the foremost expression of one’s love for one’s fellow human beings. The reward for this spending is also God’s love because whatever one spends he has it saved in the heavens and in the words of the Prophet Jesus (sws), his heart too remains occupied at this place, (Matthew, 6:19-21). This spending in the way of God is the right of one’s relatives, orphans and the needy which must necessarily be fulfilled. Any slackness in fulfilling this right can, in the eyes of God, make a person a criminal who extorts the rights of people. Thus, at another instance, the Qur’ān has clearly stated that if a person starts amassing wealth while remaining indifferent to these rights then this is hoarding and its punishment is the fire of Hell – from which every believer should seek refuge with the Almighty. Only people who adopt a balanced attitude in their spending and consider the sustenance they have been given by God a blessing and not a result of their own planning are afforded with the urge and will to spend in this manner. Consequently, two further things are stated: Firstly, wealth should not be squandered for it is a blessing of God and the right attitude in this regard is that a person should spend it in a balanced and efficient way on his permissible needs and whatever he saves he should consider that he has been entrusted with it as a share for its rightful recipients and with full caution discharge this duty of handing it over to them. The reason for this is that a person who does not adopt a balanced attitude regarding his needs is not able to even find time from his pastimes and pursuits to fulfill such duties regarding others. The Qur’ān says that people who squander their wealth are Satan’s brothers and Satan is very ungrateful to his Lord. He allures people to his ways and entices them to spend on things which earn the displeasure of God. While explaining the balanced attitude in this matter, the Qur’ān says that a person should neither be miserly nor prodigal so that when he needs his wealth, he ends up yearning for wealth and is reduced to indigence; on the contrary, he should spend in a balanced way and always save something so that he is able to help others whenever needed. Secondly, it is the wisdom and will of God which governs the financial circumstances of a person. The only responsibility of a person is that he should work hard to create opportunities for his livelihood. People who do not understand this, not only do not spend on others, but many a time become so callous as to even kill their children for fear of poverty. The Qur’ānic verses which mention the directives of spending in the way of God, at one place, specially allude to the evil Arab custom of burying alive infant girls in the time of jāhiliyyah. The psyche behind this was that since a woman is not an earning member of the family, why should one bear the burden of her up-bringing. The Qur’ān forbade this heinous practice and said that it is the Almighty who provides for these innocent girls and also for those who indulge in this practice. They should rest assured that the Almighty is ever-watching the circumstances His servants are going through; He is not un-aware of them.

iv. Chastity and Modesty

The fourth directive mentioned is that no one should even go near fornication. The reason stated for this is that it is open lewdness and a very dreadful practice. The implication is that no argument is required to prove its awfulness and lewdness. Human nature, unless it is perverted, has always regarded it to be a grave sin and a terrible crime. It is an indubitable reality that the institution of family is as essential a need for a person as air and water are. This institution can sustain on natural feelings and emotions only if the relationship between the spouses is permanent. If this aspect is missing then a society can only consist of a bunch of animals which are devoid of natural and spiritual feelings and emotions; it cannot be founded on right and healthy footings. It is this very terrible nature of fornication because of which the Almighty has not merely forbidden it; He has said to not even go near it. This means that one should keep away from things that may lead to it or may ultimately entice a person to it. The etiquette of gender interaction mentioned in the Qur’ān is stated for these very reasons. A summary of this etiquette is that men and women with regard to their physical and psychological needs should guard their gazes and properly cover their private parts and should not do anything that rouses sexual emotions. The reason for this is that when Satan wants to give currency to fornication in a society, he first of all begins from these places. It is evident from the Qur’ān that it was through this very way that he had attacked Adam and Eve. On this very basis, popularizing fornication and creating opportunities which lead to it are regarded a crime by the Almighty.

v. Sanctity of Human Life

The fifth directive is that no one should kill any one. This is a mention of the sanctity of human life which it always possessed as per morality and religion. The Qur’ān has informed us that prior to this, the Israelites were also given this directive and the Almighty had ordained that killing one human being was like killing whole mankind. The Qur’ān has also clarified that the perpetrators of this crime will not only have to face God, they will also have to reckon with the heirs of the slain person and God has given them full authority in this regard, and no court of justice can show any leniency to the murderer without the consent of his heirs. Its responsibility is that if they insist on qisās, it should help them and should implement with full force whatever they want.

vi. Misappropriating the Wealth of Orphans

The sixth directive is that the wealth of orphans should not be misappropriated. The words of this directive are the same as those of fornication earlier: “Do not approach the wealth of orphans except for their welfare and betterment.” The implication is that one should only use the wealth of the orphans for their development and protection and this too should be done till the time when orphans reach maturity and can be entrusted with their wealth.

vii. Keeping Promises

The seventh directive is that promises should be kept at all costs. The Qur’ān here says that one shall be held accountable for promises. At some other instances in the Qur’ān as well, this directive of keeping promises is mentioned with the same emphasis. At the time of armed jihād also, the most important directive which is stated in the Qur’ān is this keeping of promises. At one instance, the Prophet (sws) and the Muslims have been directed to end their treaties with the Idolaters of Arabia and launch the final onslaught. However, this much has been clearly stated in it that treaties which are time-bound must be honoured till the time period expires. At another instance, it has been stated that if a nation with whom Muslims are bound in a pact is oppressing the Muslims, then these Muslims cannot be helped in breach of this pact.

viii. Honesty in Weighing

The eighth directive is that things should be weighed and measured with honesty. The Almighty says that He has set the earth and the heavens on a scale and thus it is necessary that a person in his circle should remain just and measure with the right scale and weights. It is evident from this that this is a very important directive and in its essence is actually a corollary of the scale of justice on which this world has been created. Thus if anyone deviates from it, it means that his conception of justice and fairness has become defective and he actually does not believe in a just God. After this, obviously the economic and social systems of the society are shaken from their bases and no ingredient of the society remains in its place. Adulteration in things is also a similar case. If a person mixes water in milk, or sand in sugar or barley in wheat, he commits the same crime because even if he weighs accurately he is not giving the buyer in full what he is buying. This is like usurping the rights of others for which he will have to face grave consequences both in this world and in that to come. Thus the Qur’ān has said: “give full measure, when you measure, and weigh with correct scales. This is better and fairer as far as the consequences are concerned.”

ix. Following Speculations

The ninth directive is that one should not base one’s actions on speculations. The Qur’ān has warned us from regarding this to be a trivial directive because the faculties of sight, hearing and intellect shall one day be held accountable before God. The implication of this directive is that it is not right for a Muslim to make bad estimations about other Muslims, or make allegations against others or take some action against others without proper knowledge of what the matter is or spread rumours merely on the basis of speculation or form a view about God’s being and attributes and His directives merely on the basis of conjecture and guesswork and unending analogies.

x. Pride and Vanity

The tenth directive is that no one should walk with pride and vanity on God’s earth because this is the gait of the conceited. The Qur’ān thus says that howsoever much a person may strike the earth with his feet, he will not be able to rent it asunder and howsoever much a person may walk while raising his head he will not be able to reach the heights of the mountains. Such a gait obviously reflects one’s inner-self. Wealth, authority, beauty, knowledge, power and other similar things produce pride and vanity in a person. Each of these produces a specific type of pride in one’s gait showing that his heart is devoid of the perception of serving God and there is no concept in it of God’s glory and greatness. The heart which has the perception of serving God and of His greatness only beats in the chests of people who have humility. Instead of walking arrogantly, they walk with their heads bent. Here it should remain clear that pride and vanity are not merely reflected in one’s gait: they are evident in one’s conversation, clothes, appearance and behaviour as well. Hence the use of all such things should be regarded as prohibited which reflect affluence or are a means of show and pomposity or are instrumental in overawing others or belong to the mannerisms of rogues and ruffians. So much so, one should not adopt an arrogant appearance in keeping the beard and the moustache and in wearing clothes. Moreover, this mental state becomes a source of great sins. Consequently, it is this conceit and arrogance which is instrumental in deliberately denying the truth, in considering oneself superior to others on the basis of colour, creed and race, in considering others to be inferior and making fun of them, in censuring others, in calling them with bad names and in scandalizing the faults of others in their absence. God has strictly forbidden all these. Like the ten commandments of the Torah, these are the ten commandments of the Qur’ān. All morals are their corollary. What the Almighty has regarded as great sins and acts of vulgarity emerge from disobeying these directives. The Qur’ān unequivocally states that people can be punished for this disobedience in the Hereafter. Thus every Muslim should remain cautious about it. The following three things should remain in consideration in this regard: Firstly, if the disobedience is unintentional, God will not hold a person accountable. His law is that if a person unintentionally commits something which apparently is a misdeed, however, he had no intention of committing that misdeed, the Almighty will not punish him. Secondly, if a person is able to abstain from disobeying these directives, then its reward is that his minor sins will be forgiven by the Merciful Lord otherwise all his major and minor sins will be recorded in the register of his deeds and he will have to give their account. Thirdly, if a person disobeys any of these directives while being overwhelmed with emotions, he should repent and mend his ways. It is essential that he repent as soon as possible. The Almighty has clearly stated in the Qur’ān that He will forgive people who commit a sin while being overwhelmed with emotions if they repent right after it. He will not forgive people who sin all their lives and repent when they see death approaching. Similarly, He will not forgive people who deliberately reject the truth if they continue with this attitude till their death. The Qur’ān has ascertained two cases in which repentance shall be accepted by the Almighty. After this, one case remains: a person was not able to repent right after his sin; however, he did not delay repentance till his death. In this case, the Qur’ān is silent. This silence creates hope as well as fear and the purport of the Qur’ān also seems that one should remain between the states of hope and fear in this case. It is such people who would hopefully attain salvation through the intercession of the Prophet (sws).


3. Pinnacle of Morality

When a person reaches the pinnacle of morality with regard to his Creator and his fellow human beings the qualities which emerge in him are also stated at one place in the Qur’ān by the Almighty. These are ten qualities and in the whole of its corpus, the Qur’ān has not added to this list. They reflect the pinnacle of religion. It urges its followers to try to engender these qualities in themselves. Here are the details of these qualities:

i. Islām

The first quality is islām (showing submission to God). When this word is mentioned right after i#mān the way it is here, then it signifies the external form of islām, ie. the directives which relate to the deeds and words and the physical entity of a person. Thus if the tongue of a person is willing to speak and abstain from speaking at the behest of God and His Prophet (sws); if his ears are ready to hear and stop hearing at their bidding, if his hands are prepared to strike and restrain themselves at their command and if his feet are keen to walk and stop at their directive, then this is nothing but islām. It is evident from the Qur’ān that the best examples of islām are the Prophets themselves. Thus we have been directed to follow them to reach this position of submitting to God and being content and happy with His decisions.

ii. Īmān

The second quality is having īmān (faith). This is the inner aspect of religion and here it implies the full faith one has about the promises of God together with His true cognizance. Thus a person who believes in God in such a manner that he submits himself totally to Him and is satisfied over His decisions in the utmost manner, then such a person is called a mu’min (true believer). It is through īmān that hearts are purified, intellect receives guidance and intentions are cleansed. It is this faith which affects both one’s ideologies and one’s deeds simultaneously and embraces one’s whole being. Then with the remembrance of God, with reciting His revelations and with the manifestation of His signs in the world inside a person and that outside, his faith grows. It is this faith whose requirement mentioned in the Qur’ān is that nothing in this world should be dearer to a true believer than the Almighty and His Prophet (sws).

iii. Humbling Oneself before God

The third quality is humbling oneself before God. This is an inner expression of a person which sets a person forever at the obedience of his Lord with full sincerity and dedication. This is the most prominent manifestation of the relationship between the Lord and His worshippers in the inner-self of a believer. Those who humble themselves before God are people who always serve God and in no circumstances become rebellious against their Lord. Sorrow, happiness, vivacity, exuberance and moments of bliss or grief do not swerve them from obedience. Even sexual impulses, strong desires and onslaughts of emotions do not make them stumble before their Lord. Their hearts acknowledge His grandeur and greatness and they consider the sharī‘ah a set of divine directives given by God to them in His very presence and can’t even think of evading what is given in this manner. A little deliberation shows that this is the very state of this entire universe and all its inhabitants.

iv. Veracity

The fourth quality is veracity. It means that a person’s intention, words and deeds are upright and in harmony with one another. A person should not utter a single word which is untrue, his deeds should not contradict his words and if he adheres to every word he gives, then this is the veracity of his words and deeds; however, this should necessarily be supplemented with the veracity of his intentions. The Qur’ān has termed hypocrisy as its antithesis and at various places clarified that to God real deeds are those which spring forth from within a person; thus the pinnacle of veracity is achieved through this harmony of words and deeds and intention.

v. Patience

The fifth quality is patience. Its primary meaning is to restrain oneself from restlessness and anxiety. Later, the meaning of showing perseverance and resolve in one’s stance while encountering hardships and hindrances was incorporated into it. It is not something akin to weakness and frailty that a person is forced to adopt when he is helpless and weak; on the contrary, it is the fountainhead of determination and resolve and the pinnacle of human character. It is because of patience that a person becomes internally strong and instead of complaining about the dreadful experiences of life, welcomes them accepting them whole-heartedly and considers them to be from God, is never worried if his efforts are not bearing fruit, is not restless and uneasy, is not revengeful even against those who harm him, is steadfast in defending the truth even if death stares at him, exercises restraint both in times of joy and sorrow and all his life diligently discharges what he thinks to be his obligation. It is this aspect of human character because of which the relationship of tawakkul (trust) is established between him and his Creator and, in all circumstances, he trusts Him. The Qur’ānic wordsإِنَّا للَّهِ وَ إِنَّا إلِيْهِ رَاجِعُوْن (2: 155) (We are for God and to Him shall we return, (2:155)) express this very trust and submission. The Qur’ān says that those who abide by these words all their life and die on them will be rewarded with special favours from their Lord.

vi. Khushū‘ (Humility)

The sixth quality is khushū‘. The humility and servility which is engendered in a person as a result of comprehending the awe, grandeur and majesty of God is called khushū‘ by the Qur’ān. This is an internal feeling of a person which makes him submit himself before God and also produces in him the feelings of mercy and love for other human beings. In the first case, its best manifestation is the prayer, especially the tahajjud prayer when a believer communicates with the Almighty while being cut off from the world, and nothing except the remembrance of God and gratitude to Him fill his secluded moments. In the second case, this feeling effects the whole personality of a believer and makes him an embodiment of affection for his family and very caring and sympathetic towards his friends, neighbours and acquaintances and a fountainhead of guidance for the society. Consequently, it is because of such kind, humane and benevolent people that comes into being a society which is a paradise of God on earth and the objective and desire of every upright person.

vii. Charity

The seventh quality is being charitable. One level of spending in the way of God is that one should pay the obligatory zakāh from his wealth. A higher level is that he considers whatever wealth remains with him after spending on his personal and business needs to be the right of the society and whenever he sees a need, he whole-heartedly offers his help. The third and the highest level in this regard is that he fulfills the needs of others while sacrificing his own needs and ignoring his own desires. The words “those who give in charity” can be used for all these three levels. However, when enumerating the qualities of a person, he is called so, it would primarily refer to the highest level mentioned above. In other words, this quality in a person means that he is a generous and large-hearted person who is always on the look out to spend in the way of God. This actually is a manifestation of the previously mentioned khusū‘ – this time in relation to human beings. It was for this reason that the prayer and spending in the way of God are generally mentioned adjacently in the Qur’ān.

viii. The Fast

The eighth quality is keeping the fast. It specifically targets disciplining the soul and nurturing patience. The Qur’ān says that its objective is to attain piety (taqwā). Thus when the words al-sā’imīn (those who fast) are used while enumerating the qualities of a person, it will refer to people who have such a strong desire to become pious that they fast as much as they can to attain it. It follows from this that these people are the ones who abstain from evil, desist from vulgarity and their life is an embodiment of the highest of morals.

ix. Guarding the Private Parts (hifz-i furūj)

The ninth quality is guarding the private parts (hifz-i furūj). This is a consequence of disciplining the soul and of piety. This expression which refers to people who refrain from nudity, lewdness and vulgarity also occurs in many other verses of the Qur’ān. The implication is that they guard their chastity and modesty to the utmost. Thus except at instances they are allowed to reveal themselves, they never do so whether in private or in public. They also do not wear clothes which reveal body parts that have sexual attraction in any manner for the opposite gender. It is this extent of abstaining from vulgarity that produces a society in which chastity reigns supreme and men and women instead of trying to reveal their bodies are anxious to conceal them as much as they can.

x. Remembering God in Abundance

The tenth quality is remembering God in abundance. When the thought of his Lord takes firm ground in the heart of a person, he does not consider it enough to merely worship his God at the specified times of the day; he constantly tries to remember God at all times. When he sees a sign of God, his tongue spontaneously utters the words سُبْحَانَ اللهِ (glory be to Allah). He begins all his tasks and routines by saying بِسْمِ الله (in the name of Allah). When he receives a favour from his Lord, he expresses his gratitude by the words الْحَمْدُ لله (gratitude is for Allah). He never expresses his intention for something without uttering the words إِنْ شَاءَ الله (if Allah wills) and مَا شَاءَ الله (what Allah wills). He seeks God’s help in all his affairs. He asks Him for His mercy on every calamity that befalls him. He turns to Him in every hardship. He remembers God before going to sleep and begins his day by taking His name. In short, at all instances and at all moments, he is constantly in contact with his Lord. Not only this; when he prays, he remembers God; when he fasts, he remembers God; when he recites the Qur’ān, he remembers God, when he spends on the poor, he remembers God; when he abstains from sin, he remembers God; when he falls in sin, he remembers God and becomes anxious to seek forgiveness from Him; one form of this remembrance is reflection: when we look at the world created by God, we see an astounding variety in the countless creatures He has created; we see the astounding products of human intellect around us; we see stormy seas and flowing rivers, lush green vegetation, abundant rain and the sequence of days and nights. We witness the outcome of winds and clouds. We also see how the heavens and the earth have been made and the astonishing way in which they are built; their benefits and uses for us are also apparent to us; they have a purpose and meaning to them; then we have the signs of God that are found not only in the world around us but also in the world within us; every now and then these signs appear in new and more enchanting forms. When a believer reflects on these signs of God, his heart and mind are filled with the remembrance of God. Consequently, he spontaneously declares: God! You have not made this world without a purpose; it is against Your knowledge and stature to do something meaningless and purposeless; I know this world will definitely culminate in a day of judgement in which people would be punished who spent their lives thinking that the world had been created by a merry-maker for merry making; I seek refuge with you from their fate.